Historie Podcasts

Store begivenheder, sportshøjdepunkter og nobelpriser fra 1986 - Historie

Store begivenheder, sportshøjdepunkter og nobelpriser fra 1986 - Historie

  • Sovjet frigjorde Natan Scharansky
  • Atomkatastrofe i Tjernobyl
  • Topmøde i Reykjavik
  • Spanien og Portugal går ind på fællesmarkedet
  • Marcos flygter fra Filippinerne
  • Amerikanske fly angriber Tripoli
  • Rumskib Udfordrer eksploderer i luften
  • Iran Contra Affair
  • USA reagerer på libysk terror

Sport

NBA: Boston Celtics vs Houston Rockets Series: 4-2
NCAA Fodbold: Penn State Record: 12-0-0
Heisman Trophy: Vinny Testaverde, miami-fl, QB-point: 2.213
Stanley Cup: Montreal Canadiens vs. Calgary Flames Series: 4-1
Super Bowl XX: Chicago Bears vs. New England Patriots Score: 46-10
US Open Golf: Ray Floyd Score: 279 Banen: Shinnecock Hills GC Beliggenhed: Southhampton, NY
VM: Argentina mod Vesttyskland Score: 3-2
World Series: New York Mets vs. Boston Red Sox Series: 4-3

Populær musik

1. "Det er hvad venner er til" ... Dionne Warwick og venner
2. "Hvordan vil jeg vide" ... Whitney Houston
3. "Kryie" ... Mr. Mister
4. "Sara" ... Starship
5. "Disse drømme" ... Hjerte
6. "Rock Me Amadeus" ... Flaco
7. "Kys" ... Prins
8. "Addicted to Love" ... Robert Palmer
9. "West End Girls" ... Pet Shop Boys
10. "Greatest Love of All" ... Whitney Houston

Top ti film

1. Udlændinge
2. En amerikansk hale
3. Tilbage til skolen
4. Cobra
5. Pengens farve
6. Farven Lilla
7. Krokodille Dundee
8. Ned og ud i Beverly Hills
9. Ferris Buellers fridag
10. Det gyldne barn

Fiktion
1. "It" af Stephen King
2. "Red Storm Rising" af Tom Clancy
3. "Whirlwind" af James Clavell
4. "The Bourne Supremacy" af Robert Ludlum
5. "Hollywood Husbands" af Jackie Collins

Faglitteratur
1. "Faderskab" af Bill Cosby
2. "Fit for Life" af Harvey og Marilyn Diamond
3. "His Way" af Kitty Kelly
4. "The Rotation Diet" af Martin Katahn
5. "Du er kun gammel en gang" af Dr. Seuss

Mest populære tv -udsendelser

1. Cosby Show (NBC)
2. Familiebånd (NBC)
3. Skål (NBC)
4. Murder She Wrote (NBC)
5. The Golden Girls (NBC)
6. 60 minutter (CBS)
7. Night Court (NBC)
8. Voksende smerter (ABC)
9. Moonlighting (ABC)
10. Hvem er chefen? (ABC)

Academy Awards

Bedste billede: "Out of Africa"
Bedste instruktør: Sydney Pollack ... "Out of Africa"
Bedste skuespiller: Paul Newman ... "The Color of Money"
Bedste skuespillerinde: Marlee Matlin ... "Children of a Lesser God"

Grammy Awards

Årets rekord: "Higher Love" ... Steve Winwood
Årets sang: "Det er hvad venner er til" ... Burt Bacharach, Carole Bayer Sager
Bedste album: "Graceland" ... Paul Simon
Mandlig vokalist: Steve Winwood ... "Higher Love"
Kvindelig vokalist: Barbra Streisand ... "The Broadway Album"

Nobelpriser

KemiPrisen blev uddelt i fællesskab til:HERSCHBACH, DUDLEY R., U.S.A., Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, f. 1932;LEE, YUAN T., U.S.A., University of California, Berkeley, CA, f. 1936 (iHsinchu, Taiwan); ogPOLANYI, JOHN C., Canada, University of Toronto, Toronto, f. 1929:"for deres bidrag vedrørende dynamikken i kemisk elementærprocesser "••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••LitteraturSOYINKA, WOLE, Nigeria, f. 1934:"der i et bredt kulturelt perspektiv og med poetiske overtoner modeeksistensdrama "••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••FredWIESEL, ELIE, USA, f. 1928: Formand for 'Præsidentens kommission om Holocaust'. Forfatter, humanitær.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••Fysiologi eller medicinPrisen blev uddelt i fællesskab til:COHEN, STANLEY, U.S.A., Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, f. 1922; ogLEVI-MONTALCINI, RITA, Italien og U.S.A., Institute of Cell Biology of theC.N.R., Rom, Italien, f. 1909 (i Torino, Italien):"for deres opdagelser af vækstfaktorer"••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••FysikPrisen blev tildelt med halvdelen til:RUSKA, ERNST, Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland, Fritz- Haber-Institut derMax-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin, f. 1906, d. 1988:"for hans grundlæggende arbejde inden for elektronoptik og for design afførste elektronmikroskop "og den anden halvdel i fællesskab til:BINNIG, GERD, Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, R & Mac217; schlikon, Schweiz, f. 1947; ogROHRER, HEINRICH, Schweiz, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Ruschlikon, Schweiz, f. 1933:"til deres design af scanningstunnelmikroskopet"

Pulitzer -præmier

Drama: Larry McMurtry ... "Lonesome Dove"
Historie: Walter A. McDougall ... "Himlen og jorden"
International rapportering: Lewis M. Simons, Pete Carey & Katherine Ellison ... "San Jose (CA) Mercury News"
National rapportering: Arthur Howe ... "Philadelphia Inquirer
Craig Flournoy og George Rodrigue ... "Dallas Morning News"
Public Service: "Denver Post"

Tony Awards

Bedste spil: "I'm Not Rappaport" ... Herb Gardner
"Edwin Droods mysterium"
"Bedste skuespiller i et teaterstykke: Judd Hirsch ..." I'm Not Rappaport
Bedste skuespillerinde i et stykke: Bernadette Peters ... "Sang og dans"


Dagens berømte fødselsdage

George Mallory

1886 George Mallory, engelsk bjergbestiger (& quotbecause it is there & quot), født i Mobberley, England (d. 1924)

    Alexander Wetmore, amerikansk ornitolog (d. 1978) Blanche Yurka, amerikansk skuespillerinde (Taxi, A Tale of Two Cities), født i Saint Paul, Minnesota (d. 1974) Margarita Xirgu, catalansk sceneskuespiller, instruktør og politisk radikal (Bloody Wedding , Mariana Pineda), født i Barcelona, ​​Spanien (d. 1969) Paul Joostens, flamsk maler Hans Ruin, finsk svensksproget historiker Annie & quotMae & quot Busch, australsk skuespillerinde (Foolish Wives), født i Melbourne, Victoria (d. 1946) Con Conrad [Dober], amerikansk sangskriver (& quotMa! He Making Eyes at Me & quot "The Continental") og teaterproducent, født i NYC, New York (d. 1938) Edward Steuermann, østrigsk-amerikansk pianist og komponist, født i Sambor, Østrig- Det ungarske imperium (d. 1964) Manuela Fernández-Fojaco, spansk supercentenar (d. 2009) Blanche Sweet, amerikansk skuespillerinde (Home Sweet Home, Avenging Conscience), født i Chicago, Illinois (d. 1986) Cota Ramaswami, indisk cricketspiller (Davis Cup for Indien 1922, Test 1936), født i Madras Philip Barry, amerikansk dramatiker (Philadelphia Story) George Thalben-Ball, australsk-engelsk organist (Birmingham City Organist, 1949-83) og komponist (Elegy), født i Sydney, Australien (d. 1987) Henry Wadsworth, amerikansk skuespiller (The Thin Man, Applaus, Fast & amp Loose), født i Maysville, Kentucky (d. 1974)

Anastasia Nikolaevna

1901 Anastasia Nikolaevna, yngste datter af den sidste russiske zar, Nicholas II og Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, født i Peterhof Palace, Sankt Petersborg, Rusland (d. 1918)

    Llewellyn Rees, britisk teaterskuespiller (A Fish Called Wanda, Invisible Creature), født i Charmouth, Dorset, England (d. 1994) Raymond Radiguet, fransk journalist/forfatter (Le diable ouch corps) Jeanette MacDonald, amerikansk skuespillerinde og sangerinde (& quotWhen I'm Calling You & quot), født i Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1965) Keye Luke, kinesisk-amerikansk skuespiller (Across the Pacific, Yangtse Incident), født i Guangzhou, Kina (d. 1991) Manuel Rosenthal, fransk komponist (Bootleggers ), født i Paris, Frankrig (d. 2003) Eduard Tubin, estisk komponist, født i Torila, Governorate of Livonia (d. 1982) (James) & quotKay & quot Kyser, amerikansk bandleder og radiopersonlighed (Kay Kysers Kollege for Musical Knowledge), født i Rocky Mount, North Carolina (d. 1985) Benny Payne, amerikansk jazzpianist (Cab Calloway Billy Daniels Show), født i Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1986) Froelich Rainey, amerikansk antropolog og quizmoderator (What in the World) , født i Black River Falls, Wisconsin (d. 1992) Bud C ollyer, amerikansk tv -sanger (Beat the Clock, To Tell the Truth), født i NYC, New York Nedra Volz, amerikansk skuespillerinde, født i Montrose, Iowa (d. 2003) Stanley Knowles, canadisk politiker (d. 1997) Avon Long, amerikansk skuespiller (Roots: Next Generation, The Sting, Harry og Tonto), født i Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1984) John Nicholas & quotDick & quot Foran, amerikansk skuespiller (OK Crackerby, Fort Apache, Winners of the West), født i Flemington, New Jersey (d. 1979) Ray McKinley, amerikansk orkesterleder og jazztrommeslager (Glenn Miller Time), født i Fort Worth, Texas (d. 1995) Glen Morris , Amerikansk olympisk friidrætsmester (olympisk guld, 1936) og skuespiller (Tarzan, Hold That Co-ed), født i Denver, Colorado (d. 1974) Henry Brandon [Heinrich von Kleinbach], tysk-amerikansk skuespiller (The Searchers , Assault on Precinct 13, Drums of Fu Manchu), født i Berlin, Tyskland (d. 1990) Sammy Cahn [Cohen], amerikansk tekstforfatter (& quotThree Coins in a Fountain & quot "High Hopes & quot" Call Me Irresponsible & quot), født i NYC, New York ( d. 1993) Sylvia Porter, finansforfatter (Sylvia Porters pengebog) EG Marshall [Everett Eugene Grunz], Americ en skuespiller (12 vrede mænd, forsvarerne), født i Owatonna Minnesota (d. 1998) Billy Wade, cricket-keeper (sydafrikansk i 11 tests 1938-50)

George Mikan

1924 George Mikan, American Basketball Hall of Fame center (NBA All Star 1951-54 NBL MVP 1948 Minneapolis Lakers), født i Joliet, Illinois (d. 2005)

    Liesbeth den Uyl-van Vessem, hollandsk feminist og hustru til premierminister Joop den Uyl, født i Amsterdam, Holland (d. 1990) Herman & quotAce & Wallace, amerikansk bluesguitarist og sanger, født i St Louis, Missouri (d. 1996) Rex Collings, engelsk udgiver (Rex Collings), (d. 1996) Robert Arthur, amerikansk skuespiller (12 O'Clock High, Just For You), født i Aberdeen Washington (d. 2008) Patricia Hutchinson, britisk ambassadør (Uruguay)

Paul McCartney

1942 Paul McCartney, britisk rocksanger -songwriter, bassist, klaverist (The Beatles -& quotYesterday & quotI Will & quot Wings -& "Silly Love Songs"), født i Liverpool, England

Thabo Mbeki

1942 Thabo Mbeki, Sydafrikas præsident (1999-2008), 1. vicepræsident (1994-99) og økonom, født i Mbewuleni, Eastern Cape

    Carl Radle, amerikansk basguitarist (Derek og dominoerne), født i Tulsa, Oklahoma (d. 1980) Richard Perry, amerikansk pladeproducent (Harry Nilsson Ringo Starr Leo Sayer Pointer Sisters), født i Brooklyn, New York City Barry Evans, Engelsk skuespiller (Dr. Upton-Dr in the House, Mind Your Language), født i Guildford, England (d. 1997) Raffaella Carrà [Pelloni], italiensk sanger og skuespillerinde, født i Bologna, Italien Paul Lansky, amerikansk elektronisk komponist, født i New York City Sandy Posey, amerikansk pop- og countrysanger (& quotSingle Girl & quot), født i Jasper, Alabama Rick Griffin, amerikansk kunstner og en førende designer af psykedeliske plakater i 1960'erne (Grateful Dead), født i Palos Verdes, Californien (d . 1991) Russell Ash, britisk forfatter ('the human Google'), født i Surrey, England Fabio Capello, italiensk fodboldtræner Bruiser Brody [Frank Goodish], professionel wrestler (d. 1988)

Isabella Rossellini

1952 Isabella Rossellini, italiensk skuespillerinde og model (Big Night, Blue Velvet), født i Rom, Italien

    Rick Gazda, trompetist (The Miami Horns), født i Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Idriss Déby, tchadisk politiker og militærofficer (præsident for Tchad, 1990–2021), født i Berdoba, Tchad (d. 2021) Jerome Smith, amerikansk guitarist ( KC & amp; Sunshine Band - & quotBoogie Shoes & quot), født i Miami, Florida (d. 2000) William Beard, amerikansk session og turnerende rock -trommeslager (Face To Face Sessions Americana), født i Boston, Massachusetts Brian Benben, amerikansk, skuespiller (Dream On, Gangster Chronicles), født i Winchester, Virginia John Scott, engelsk organist og kormester, født i Wakefield, England (d. 2015) Andrea Evans, amerikansk skuespillerinde (Young & amp Restless, Tina-One Life to Live), født i Aurora , Illinois Ralph Brown, britisk skuespiller (Withnail og I), født i Cambridge, England West Arkeen, amerikansk guitarist og sangskriver (for Guns N 'Roses-& quotIt's So Easy, & quot "Garden"), født i Neuilly-sur-Seine, Frankrig (d. 1997) Andres Galarraga, venezuelansk infielder (Colorado Ro ckies), født i Caracas [Genevieve] Alison Moyet, engelsk rockvokalist (Yaz, Alf), født i Essex, England Jan [ice] Merrill, trackstjerne (amerikansk rekord langdistanceholder 1979)

Blake Shelton

1976 Blake Shelton, amerikansk country-singer-songwriter (& quotBoys 'Round Here & quot "God Gave Me You" & quotHoney Bee & quot) og tv-personlighed (The Voice), født i Ada, Oklahoma

    Tara Platt, amerikansk skuespillerinde og stemmeskuespillerinde for japanske anime-film (Temari-Naruto), født i Fairfax, Virginia Antonio Gates, amerikansk fodboldspiller Ivana Wong, sanger og sangskriver i Hong Kong, Craig Mottram, australsk mellemdistanceløber (World C'ship bronze 2005, kun ikke-afrikanske løber til medalje i begivenhed siden 1987), født i Frankston, Victoria Teresa Cormack, offer for børnemord i New Zealand (d. 1987) Ella (Jiahua) Chen, medlem af den taiwanske pigegruppe SHE Janne Happonen, Finsk skihopper, født i Kuopio, Finland Richard Gasquet, fransk tennisspiller, født i Béziers, Frankrig

Richard Madden

1986 Richard Madden, skotsk skuespiller (Game of Thrones, Askepot), født i Elderslie, Skotland


Sovjetisk atomreaktor i Tjernobyl eksploderer

Sovjetisk atomreaktor i Tjernobyl eksploderer den 26. april og forårsager frigivelse af radioaktivt materiale i store dele af Europa.

Flere oplysninger om Tjernobyl -atomkatastrofe

1. Et atomkraftværk i Tjernobyl, Ukraine (som stadig var en del af Sovjetunionen) eksploderede i april 1986 og forårsagede en enorm atomkatastrofe.

2. På grund af eksplosionen blev store mængder stråling og radioaktivt materiale frigivet til lokalmiljøet, hvilket påvirkede sundhed og sikkerhed for tusinder af mennesker, herunder plantearbejdere, oprydningsarbejdere og lokalbefolkningen.

3. Eksplosionen og den resulterende brand var forårsaget af et eksperiment, der gik galt, tilstedeværelsen af ​​designfejl i reaktoren og mangel på sikkerhedsovervågning.

4. Hundredtusinder af mennesker blev fordrevet af katastrofen, da Sovjetunionen evakuerede og lukkede det omkringliggende område inden for 30 miles fra atomkraftværket.

5. Eksplosionen i Tjernobyl beskadigede ikke kun det omgivende miljø med stråling, dele af Europa, især Sverige og Finland, blev også ramt af forurenet støv og luft fra Tjernobyl, da det rejste gennem atmosfæren.

6. Til sidst var oprydningsarbejdere i stand til at dæmme op for atomkatastrofen ved at lægge en konkret "sarkofag" over den beskadigede reaktor, men den blev stadig anset for at være noget ustabil.

7. I slutningen af ​​1990'erne til midten af ​​2000'erne arbejdede Europa og Ukraine sammen om at skabe et endnu mere permanent og stabilt dække for at inddæmme strålingen.


Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling blev født i Portland, Oregon, i USA. Hans familie kom fra en række preussiske landmænd, og hans far arbejdede blandt andet som lægemiddelsælger. Efter først at have studeret ved Oregon State University i Corvallis, Oregon, opnåede Linus Pauling sin ph.d. fra California Institute of Technology i Pasadena, som han fastholdt bånd til resten af ​​sin karriere. I 1950'erne førte Linus Paulings engagement i den anti-nukleare bevægelse til, at han blev stemplet som en formodet kommunist, hvilket resulterede i, at hans pas til tider blev tilbagekaldt. Linus og Ava Helen Pauling havde fire børn sammen.

1954 -pris: Udviklingen af ​​kvantemekanik i løbet af 1920'erne havde stor indflydelse ikke kun på fysikområdet, men også på kemi. I løbet af 1930'erne var Linus Pauling blandt pionererne, der brugte kvantemekanik til at forstå og beskrive kemisk binding - det vil sige måden atomer går sammen til at danne molekyler. Linus Pauling arbejdede inden for en lang række områder inden for kemi. For eksempel arbejdede han på strukturer af biologisk vigtige kemiske forbindelser. I 1951 offentliggjorde han strukturen af ​​alfa -helixen, som er en vigtig grundkomponent i mange proteiner.

1962 -pris: Atombomberne faldt på Hiroshima og Nagasaki var et vendepunkt i Linus Paulings liv. Sammen med andre forskere talte og skrev han imod atomvåbenkappløbet, og han var en drivkraft i Pugwash -bevægelsen. Det søgte at reducere atomvåbenens rolle i international politik og blev tildelt fredsprisen i 1995. I 1959 udarbejdede Linus Pauling det berømte "Hiroshima Appeal", det afsluttende dokument, der blev udstedt efter den femte verdenskonference mod atom- og brintbomber. Han var en af ​​de primære motorer, der opfordrede atomkraftmagterne USA, Sovjetunionen og Storbritannien til at indgå en atomprøveforbudstraktat, der trådte i kraft den 10. oktober 1963. Samme dag meddelte det norske Nobeludvalg, at Linus Pauling havde fået tildelt fredsprisen, der havde været i behold siden 1962.

En person, Linus Pauling, har fået to uddelte nobelpriser. I 1954 fik han Nobelprisen i kemi. Otte år senere blev han tildelt Nobels fredspris for sin modstand mod masseødelæggelsesvåben.

For at citere dette afsnit
MLA -stil: Linus Pauling – Fakta. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2021. tor. 17. juni 2021. & lthttps: //www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/1954/pauling/facts/>

Lær mere

Nobelpriser 2020

Tolv prisvindere blev tildelt en nobelpris i 2020 for resultater, der har givet menneskene den største fordel.

Deres arbejde og opdagelser spænder fra dannelsen af ​​sorte huller og en genetisk saks til bestræbelser på at bekæmpe sult og udvikle nye auktionsformater.


Jimmy Carter vinder Nobels fredspris

Den 11. oktober 2002 vinder tidligere præsident Jimmy Carter Nobels fredspris “ for sine årtiers utrættelige bestræbelser på at finde fredelige løsninger på internationale konflikter, fremme demokrati og menneskerettigheder og fremme økonomisk og social udvikling. ”

Carter, en jordnøddebonde fra Georgien, tjente en periode som amerikansk præsident mellem 1977 og 1981. En af hans vigtigste præstationer som præsident var at formidle fredsforhandlingerne mellem Israel og Egypten i 1978. Nobelkomiteen havde ønsket at give Carter (1924-) prisen samme år for sin indsats sammen med Anwar Sadat og Menachim Begin, men blev forhindret i at gøre det af en teknisk karakter — han var ikke blevet nomineret inden den officielle deadline.

Efter at han forlod kontoret, oprettede Carter og hans kone Rosalynn det Atlanta-baserede Carter Center i 1982 for at fremme menneskerettighederne og lindre menneskelig lidelse. Siden 1984 har de arbejdet sammen med Habitat for Humanity for at bygge hjem og øge bevidstheden om hjemløshed. Blandt sine mange præstationer har Carter været med til at bekæmpe sygdomme og forbedre økonomisk vækst i udviklingslande og har fungeret som observatør ved talrige politiske valg rundt om i verden.


Historiske begivenheder den 15. oktober

Aftale af interesse

1522 navngiver kejser Karel I Hernán Cortés guvernør i Mexico

    Khanate of Kazan erobres af tropper af Ivan Grozny. På bestilling af Catherine de 'Medici er den 1. ballet & quotBallet Comique de la Reine & quot iscenesat i Paris

Gregory erobrer Julius Cæsar

1582 gregoriansk kalender introduceret i Spanien, Portugal og pontifical States, efter at have sprunget 10 dage efter 4. oktober for at synkronisere kalenderen

    Den spanske generalstrateg Bernardino de Mendoza indtager fortet Rhinen Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve hævder Montreal Prins Willem III udnævnt til vicekonge for Overijssel jøder i Lublin bliver massakreret Asser Levy tildelt slagterlicens (kosher kød) i New Amsterdam Torsåker hekseforsøg begynder, største hekseforsøg i Sverige , 71 halshugget og brændt engelsk flåde under Lord Peterborough indtager Barcelona Cornelis Steenoven er 1. ærkebiskop for den gamle katolske kirke i Utrecht, Holland saksiske hær overgiver sig til Preussen

Romersk imperium

1764 observerer Edward Gibbon en gruppe friarer, der synger i det ødelagte Jupitertempel i Rom, som inspirerer ham til at begynde arbejdet med The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

    Mjr James Graves Simcoe udnævnt til kommandant for Queen's Rangers (Penn) Jean Pilstre de Rozier foretager 1. tøjrede ballonstigning Tidligst 32 ° F (0 ° C) registreret temperatur i NYC

Begivenhed af Interesse

1789 1. præsidentturné-George Washington i New England

Begivenhed af Interesse

1815 ankommer Napoleon Bonaparte til øen St. Helena for at begynde sit eksil

Begivenhed af Interesse

1816 Lord Byron ser kærlighedsbrevene fra Lucrezia Borgia og digteren Pietro Bembo i Milano og erklærer dem & quot de smukkeste kærlighedsbreve i verden & quot

Begivenhed af Interesse

1827 Charles Darwin optaget på Christ's College, Cambridge

Begivenhed af Interesse

1842 Karl Marx bliver chefredaktør for Rheinische Zeitung

Abraham Lincoln, præsidentikonet

1860 11-årige Grace Bedell skriver til Abraham Lincoln og fortæller ham at vokse skæg

    Cliff House åbner i San Francisco, 1. af mange på stedet Konfødererede tropper besætter Glasgow, Missouri Stor brand i Quebec ødelægger 2.500 huse. 45. kongres (1877-79) indkalder Edison Electric Light Company til at inkorporere mexicanske soldater dræbe Victorio, et af de største Apache-militær strateger. Første amerikanske fiskemagasin, American Angler udgivet Højesteret erklærer Civil Rights Act fra 1875 forfatningsstridig Hoss Radbourne stiller sin 60. sejr i sæsonen Modest Mussorgsky musikalske fantasi & quotNight on Bald Mountain & quot premiere i St. Petersborgs Kononov Hall, Rusland

Begivenhed af Interesse

1888 beslutter den tyske filosof Friedrich Nietzsche at skrive sin selvbiografi & quotEcce Homo & quot på sin 44 -års fødselsdag

Begivenhed af Interesse

1894 Kaptajn Alfred Dreyfus anholdt og anklaget for spionage i Frankrig

    Henry Perky patenterer en maskine, han udviklede sammen med William Ford til fremstilling af korn til mad, ellers kendt som strimlet hvede Aaron og Samuel Bloch bærer 1st Mail Pouch King Leopold II tager belgisk krone Cincinnati lukker sæsonen med 16-1 & 19-3 sejre over Cleve Spiders Russerne bliver drevet tilbage af japanerne i slaget ved Shaho, begge sider lider store tab: japanere (16.000) og russere (60.000)

Musik Premiere

1905 Claude Debussys symfoniske sketch & quotLa Mer & quot har premiere i Paris

Begivenhed af Interesse

1912 Red Sox Tris Speaker's gør kun verdensserier uden assistance dobbeltspil fra udebanen

    Togulykke i Liverpool under & quotBlack Week & quot Battle of Warsaw, begynder (slutter 21. oktober) Clayton Anti-trust Act vedtaget (fagforening og strejkerettigheder) Chicago White Sox slog NY Giants, 4 kampe mod 2 i 14. World Series

Udførelse

1917 den hollandske eksotiske danser Mata Hari henrettes af en skydeplads for spionage for Tyskland under WWI i Vincennes nær Paris

    Britisk Q-skib Cymric synker britisk ubåd J6 14 heste begynder 300-mile løb fra Vt til Mass for $ 1000 præmiepenge NY Yankees 1. World Series-sejr, der slår NY Giants, 4 kampe til 2

Frihedsgudinden

1924 erklærer USAs præsident Calvin Coolidge Frihedsgudinden som et nationalt monument

Historisk Offentliggørelse

1924 udgiver André Breton sit & quotSurrealistisk manifest & quot med Éditions du Sagittaire i Paris

    Pittsburgh Pirates slog Washington Senatorer, 4 kampe mod 3 i 22. World Series Willem Landrés opera & quotBeatrice & quot -premiere i Haag, Østrigs regering i Seipel, danner Philip Barrys & quotWhite Wings! & Premiere i NYC

Hindenburg -katastrofen afslutter Zeppelins alder

1928 tysk dirigible & quotGraf Zeppelin & quot lander i Lakehurst, NJ

Kontrakt af Interesse

1928 Walter Johnson underskriver en 3-årig kontrakt om at styre senatorerne

    Tata Airlines (senere til at blive Air India) foretager sin første flyvning. 20. ændring af den amerikanske forfatning træder i kraft: Præsidentperioden begynder i januar ikke marts Philadelphia Eagles spiller 1. NFL-kamp, ​​taber til NY Giants 56-0 NHL's St Louis Eagles fold

Historisk Offentliggørelse

    I stedet for at acceptere nogen handelstilbud, frigiver Yanks Tony Lazzeri Robert Sherwoods & quotAbe Lincoln in Illinois & quot premiere i NYC LaGuardia Airport åbner i NYC Yeshiva of Mir lukker efter 124 år -16] Tungt tysk luftangreb på London, 400 dræbte Londons Waterloo Station bombet af Tysk luftwaffe

Film Frigøre

1940 & quotThe Great Dictator & quot, en satirisk social kommentarfilm af og med Charlie Chaplin i hovedrollen udgivet

Begivenhed af Interesse

1941 udnævnt Hideki Tojo til premierminister i det kejserlige Japan

    Jøder fanget uden for nazistiske ghetto -mure i det besatte Polen kunne blive dræbt. Tysk 6. armé indtager Tractorenfabriek, 3.000 tyskere dør Arrow Cross Party (ligner meget Hitlers NSDAP (nazistparti)) overtager magten i Ungarn. Baseball -fremmøde rammer rekord 10,28 millioner (Tigers 1,28 er højest) Mindste World Series -andel siden 1918 (kort $ 3,748, Red Sox $ 2,140) St Louis Cards slog Boston Red Sox, 4 kampe til 3 i 43. World Series Kinas røde hær indtager Chinchov Administration af territorium af Manipur overtaget af den indiske regering Tripura tiltræder den indiske union

Television Debut

1951 & quotI Love Lucy & quot, med Lucille Ball og Desi Arnaz i hovedrollerne, debuterer på CBS

Begivenhed af Interesse

1951 Første syntese af et oralt præventionsmiddel (norethindron) fremstillet af Luis E. Miramontes under ledelse af Carl Djerassi og George Rosenkranz hos det mexicanske lægemiddelfirma Syntex

Historisk Offentliggørelse

1952 & quot; Charlotte's Web & quot; af E. B. White og illustreret af Garth Williams udgives af Harper & amp Brothers

Fotografering

1952 Henri Cartier-Bressons indflydelsesrige fotobog & quotThe Decisive Moment & quot udkommer første gang i USA og Frankrig

    John Patrick's & quotTeahouse of the August Moon & quot har premiere i New York KOIN TV -kanal 6 i Portland, OR (CBS) begynder at sende WJNL (nu WFAT) tv -kanal 19 i Johnstown, PA (IND) begynder orkanen Hazel lander i USA i North Carolina som en kategori 4 orkan, 195 dør i USA og Canada

LPGA Mesterskab

1961 LPGA Championship Women's Golf, Stardust CC: Mickey Wright vinder overbevisende sin 3. LPGA -titel med 9 slag fra Louise Suggs

    Byron R White udnævnt til højesterets WLOX tv-kanal 13 i Biloxi-Gulfport, MS (ABC) begynder at sende

Begivenhed af Interesse

1963 Ludwig Erhard efterfølger Konrad Adenauer som kansler i Vesttyskland

    Craig Breedlove sætter automatisk hastighedsrekord på 846,97 km / t St Louis Cardinals slog NY Yankees, 4 kampe til 3 i 61. World Series NY Yankees optræder i 14 & amp vinder 9 af de sidste 16 World Series -amerikanske Al Oerter vinder sin tredje af 4 på hinanden følgende olympiske herrediskattitler ved OL i Tokyo slår tjekkiske Ludvík Daněk med 0,08 m amerikanske Don Schollander svømmer en verdensrekord 4: 12,2 for at vinde 400 m fri stil guldmedalje ved OL i Tokyo, anden af ​​Schollanders 4 guldmedaljer ved Games American sprinter Bob Hayes er lig med verdensrekord 10,0s at slå Cubas Enrique Figuerola med 0,2s og vinde mændenes 100 m guldmedalje ved OL i Tokyo

Begivenhed af Interesse

1965 Dodgers & Sandy Koufax vinder 7. spil i 62. World Series vs Twins

    WEMT (nu WVII) tv -kanal 7 i Bangor, ME (ABC) begynder at udsende Australien forbyder Troggs & quotI Can't Control Myself & quot as & quoterribly obscene & quot

Begivenhed af Interesse

1966 LBJ underskriver et lovforslag om oprettelse af det amerikanske transportministerium

Fædrelandet kalder

1967 The Motherland Calls, en monumental statue til minde om slaget ved Stalingrad afsluttet i Volgograd, Rusland, dengang verdens højeste statue designet af Yevgeny Vuchetich

    AL udvidelsesudkast, KC vælger Roger Nelson & amp; Piloter vælger Don Mincher 1. Al Oerter i USA vinder mændenes diskos i olympisk rekord 64,78 m ved Mexico City Games Oerter's hidtil usete 4. olympiske discotitel i træk The Nationalist Party of Northern Ireland (NPNI) trækker sig tilbage fra sin rolle som 'officiel' opposition i det nordirske parlament i Stormont australske Ralph Doubell kører en verdensrekord 1: 44.40 for at slå kenyanske Wilson Kiprugut og vinde mændenes 800m ved OL i Mexico City britiske atlet David Hemery sætter verdensrekord 48.12s at slå Gerhard Hennige fra Vesttyskland og tage guldmedaljen i mændenes 400m hæk ved OL i Mexico City, den amerikanske sprinter Wyomia Tyus vinder sin anden olympiske 100m -titel i træk med en verdensrekord på 11.08s slår holdkammeraten Barbara Ferrell med 0.08s til guldmedaljen på Mexico City Games Bank of America Verdens hovedkvarter (555 Californien) dedikeret Madison Square Garden tv -netværk begynder (Rangers vs North Stars) N Y Mødte Ron Swobodas spektakulære dykkerfangst af synkende foring med løbere på 1. og amp. 3. i 9., Mets vinder i 10. i World Series -spil Oriole Earl Weaver bliver 1. manager skubbet ud i 60 år et World Series -spil Vietnam Moratorium Day millioner på landsplan protesterer krigen

Musik Priser

1969 3. Country Music Association Award: Johnny Cash og Tammy Wynette vinder


Sportslige højdepunkter for 1983

Her er nogle af de sportslige højdepunkter i sportens verden for 1983.

Yannick Noah vandt French Open for sin eneste grand slam -titel i sin karriere. Selvom han har 23 titler til sit navn, oversatte det aldrig til en mere grand slam -succes. Martina Navratilova havde endnu en spektakulær sæson med tre grand slam -titler, der kun gik glip af French Open. Jimmy Connors vandt sin ottende og sidste grand slam -titel i US Open og besejrede den daværende kommende spiller Ivan Lendl.

Arthur Ashe gennemgik en skæbnesvanger bypass -operation i juni samme år, hvor han blev smittet med hiv, hvilket til sidst førte til hans død i 1993.

Detroit 186 besejrede Denver 184 i et 3OT -spil. De samlede 370 point scoret er stadig det mest scorende spil nogensinde i NBA efter 30 plus år.

Tom Watson vandt British Open for sin ottende og sidste major. Hans samlede sejre er sidenhen kun blevet overgået af to golfspillere. Patty Sheehan vandt LPGA -mesterskabet for den første af hendes seks majors.

Laurent Fignon af Frankrig vandt Tour de France for første gang. Fignon ville også med succes forsvare sin titel året efter. Greg LeMond var en kommende rytter på det tidspunkt, og han vandt Road Championship det år for at blive den eneste amerikaner, der opnåede bedriften. LeMond ville fortsat have stor succes i Tour de France senere i sin karriere.

Se nogle videoer fra sportens verden i 1983. Nedenfor er en tidslinje over nogle betydelige resultater i sportens verden for år 1983.

Dato Resultater
Feb Super Bowl afholdt i Pasadena vundet af Washington
April Golf Masters vundet af Seve Ballesteros (2. sejr)
Kan Tennis French Open vundet af Yannick Noah og Chris Evert Lloyd
juni Golf US Open vundet af Larry Nelson
juli Cycling Tour de France vundet af Laurent Fignon
juli Tennis Wimbledon vandt af John McEnroe og Martina Navratilova
juli Golf British Open vundet af Tom Watson
Aug Golf US PGA vundet af Hal Sutton
Sep Tennis US Open vandt af Jimmy Connors og Martina Navratilova
Okt Baseball World Series vundet af Baltimore Orioles
Dec Tennis Australia Open vundet af Mats Wilander og Martina Navratilova

Bemærk venligst, at datoerne for tidligere begivenheder ikke altid er kendt, og nogle gange bare placeres i den måned, hvor den aktuelle begivenhed afholdes. Hvis der ikke er angivet en præcis dato, er det kun en anslået måned, at den blev afholdt.

Hvis du har en rettelse eller kender til begivenheder, der bør inkluderes her, så lad mig det vide.


Naguib Mahfouz

B orn i Kairo i 1911, Naguib Mahfouz begyndte at skrive, da han var sytten. Hans første roman blev udgivet i 1939 og ti flere blev skrevet før den egyptiske revolution i juli 1952, da han stoppede med at skrive i flere år. En roman blev dog genudgivet i 1953 og udseendet af Kairo Triologien, Bayn al Qasrayn, Qasr al Shawq, Sukkariya (Between-the-Palaces, Palace of Longing, Sugarhouse) i 1957 gjorde ham berømt i hele den arabiske verden som en skildrer af det traditionelle byliv. Med Børnene i Gebelawi (1959), begyndte han at skrive igen i en ny retning, der ofte skjulte politiske domme under allegori og symbolik. Værker fra denne anden periode omfatter romaner, Tyven og hundene (1961), Efterår Vagtler (1962), Small Talk på Nilen (1966) og Miramar (1967), samt flere novellesamlinger.

Indtil 1972 var Mahfouz ansat som embedsmand, først i Ministeriet for Mortmain Endowments, derefter som direktør for censur i Bureau of Art, som direktør for Foundation for the Cinema Support og endelig som konsulent for kultur Sager til Kulturministeriet. Årene siden hans pensionering fra det egyptiske bureaukrati har oplevet et udbrud af yderligere kreativitet, meget af det eksperimentelt. Han er nu forfatter til ikke færre end tredive romaner, mere end hundrede noveller og mere end to hundrede artikler. Half of his novels have been made into films which have circulated throughout the Arabic-speaking world. In Egypt, each new publication is regarded as a major cultural event and his name is inevitably among the first mentioned in any literary discussion from Gibraltar to the Gulf.

Fra Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1988, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1989

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate.

Naguib Mahfouz died on August 30, 2006.

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1988

To cite this section
MLA style: Naguib Mahfouz – Biographical. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Thu. 17 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/literature/1988/mahfouz/biographical/>

Learn more

Nobel Prizes 2020

Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.


Elie Wiesel – Acceptance Speech

It is with a profound sense of humility that I accept the honor you have chosen to bestow upon me. I know: your choice transcends me. This both frightens and pleases me.

It frightens me because I wonder: do I have the right to represent the multitudes who have perished? Do I have the right to accept this great honor on their behalf? … I do not. That would be presumptuous. No one may speak for the dead, no one may interpret their mutilated dreams and visions.

It pleases me because I may say that this honor belongs to all the survivors and their children, and through us, to the Jewish people with whose destiny I have always identified.

I remember: it happened yesterday or eternities ago. A young Jewish boy discovered the kingdom of night. I remember his bewilderment, I remember his anguish. It all happened so fast. The ghetto. The deportation. The sealed cattle car. The fiery altar upon which the history of our people and the future of mankind were meant to be sacrificed.

I remember: he asked his father: “Can this be true?” This is the twentieth century, not the Middle Ages. Who would allow such crimes to be committed? How could the world remain silent?

And now the boy is turning to me: “Tell me,” he asks. “What have you done with my future? What have you done with your life?”

And I tell him that I have tried. That I have tried to keep memory alive, that I have tried to fight those who would forget. Because if we forget, we are guilty, we are accomplices.

And then I explained to him how naive we were, that the world did know and remain silent. And that is why I swore never to be silent whenever and wherever human beings endure suffering and humiliation. We must always take sides. Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victim. Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented. Sometimes we must interfere. When human lives are endangered, when human dignity is in jeopardy, national borders and sensitivities become irrelevant. Wherever men or women are persecuted because of their race, religion, or political views, that place must – at that moment – become the center of the universe.

Of course, since I am a Jew profoundly rooted in my peoples’ memory and tradition, my first response is to Jewish fears, Jewish needs, Jewish crises. For I belong to a traumatized generation, one that experienced the abandonment and solitude of our people. It would be unnatural for me not to make Jewish priorities my own: Israel, Soviet Jewry, Jews in Arab lands … But there are others as important to me. Apartheid is, in my view, as abhorrent as anti-Semitism. To me, Andrei Sakharov‘s isolation is as much of a disgrace as Josef Biegun’s imprisonment. As is the denial of Solidarity and its leader Lech Walesa‘s right to dissent. And Nelson Mandela‘s interminable imprisonment.

There is so much injustice and suffering crying out for our attention: victims of hunger, of racism, and political persecution, writers and poets, prisoners in so many lands governed by the Left and by the Right. Human rights are being violated on every continent. More people are oppressed than free. And then, too, there are the Palestinians to whose plight I am sensitive but whose methods I deplore. Violence and terrorism are not the answer. Something must be done about their suffering, and soon. I trust Israel, for I have faith in the Jewish people. Let Israel be given a chance, let hatred and danger be removed from her horizons, and there will be peace in and around the Holy Land.

Yes, I have faith. Faith in God and even in His creation. Without it no action would be possible. And action is the only remedy to indifference: the most insidious danger of all. Isn’t this the meaning of Alfred Nobel’s legacy? Wasn’t his fear of war a shield against war?

There is much to be done, there is much that can be done. One person – a Raoul Wallenberg, an Albert Schweitzer, one person of integrity, can make a difference, a difference of life and death. As long as one dissident is in prison, our freedom will not be true. As long as one child is hungry, our lives will be filled with anguish and shame. What all these victims need above all is to know that they are not alone that we are not forgetting them, that when their voices are stifled we shall lend them ours, that while their freedom depends on ours, the quality of our freedom depends on theirs.

This is what I say to the young Jewish boy wondering what I have done with his years. It is in his name that I speak to you and that I express to you my deepest gratitude. No one is as capable of gratitude as one who has emerged from the kingdom of night. We know that every moment is a moment of grace, every hour an offering not to share them would mean to betray them. Our lives no longer belong to us alone they belong to all those who need us desperately.

Thank you, Chairman Aarvik. Thank you, members of the Nobel Committee. Thank you, people of Norway, for declaring on this singular occasion that our survival has meaning for mankind.

Fra Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1986, Editor Wilhelm Odelberg, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1987

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1986

Elie Wiesel held his Acceptance Speech on 10 December 1986, in the Oslo City Hall, Norway.

(The speech differs somewhat from the written speech.)

To cite this section
MLA style: Elie Wiesel – Acceptance Speech. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Thu. 17 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1986/wiesel/26054-elie-wiesel-acceptance-speech-1986/>

Learn more

Nobel Prizes 2020

Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.


Alfred Nobel

Vores redaktører gennemgår, hvad du har indsendt, og afgør, om artiklen skal revideres.

Alfred Nobel, in full Alfred Bernhard Nobel, (born October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—died December 10, 1896, San Remo, Italy), Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist who invented dynamite and other more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes.

When was Alfred Nobel born?

Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist Alfred Nobel was born October 21, 1833, in Stockholm, Sweden.

What is Alfred Nobel famous for?

Alfred Nobel is best known for his invention of dynamite and an explosive device called a blasting cap, which inaugurated the modern use of high explosives. He also founded the Nobel Prizes.

How was Alfred Nobel educated?

Alfred Nobel initially learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. He later learned from private tutors, becoming competent in chemistry. After working under the direction of Swedish American naval engineer and inventor John Ericsson in the United States, Nobel returned to Europe to work in his father’s factory in St. Petersburg.

How did Alfred Nobel die?

By 1895 Nobel had developed angina pectoris. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, on December 10, 1896.

How did Alfred Nobel found the Nobel Prizes?

Alfred Nobel was known to be generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies. In his will, he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.

Alfred Nobel was the fourth son of Immanuel and Caroline Nobel. Immanuel was an inventor and engineer who had married Caroline Andrietta Ahlsell in 1827. The couple had eight children, of whom only Alfred and three brothers reached adulthood. Alfred was prone to illness as a child, but he enjoyed a close relationship with his mother and displayed a lively intellectual curiosity from an early age. He was interested in explosives, and he learned the fundamentals of engineering from his father. Immanuel, meanwhile, had failed at various business ventures until moving in 1837 to St. Petersburg in Russia, where he prospered as a manufacturer of explosive mines and machine tools. The Nobel family left Stockholm in 1842 to join the father in St. Petersburg. Alfred’s newly prosperous parents were now able to send him to private tutors, and he proved to be an eager pupil. He was a competent chemist by age 16 and was fluent in English, French, German, and Russian as well as Swedish.

Alfred Nobel left Russia in 1850 to spend a year in Paris studying chemistry and then spent time in the United States working under the direction of John Ericsson, the builder of the ironclad warship Monitor. Upon his return to St. Petersburg, in 1852, Nobel worked in his father’s factory, which made military equipment during the Crimean War. After the war ended in 1856, the company had difficulty switching to the peacetime production of steamboat machinery, and it went bankrupt in 1859.

Alfred and his parents returned to Sweden, while his brothers Robert and Ludvig stayed behind in Russia to salvage what was left of the family business. Alfred soon began experimenting with explosives in a small laboratory on his father’s estate. At the time, the only dependable explosive for use in mines was black powder, a form of gunpowder. A recently discovered liquid compound, nitroglycerin, was a much more powerful explosive, but it was so unstable that it could not be handled with any degree of safety. Nevertheless, Nobel in 1862 built a small factory to manufacture nitroglycerin, and at the same time he undertook research in the hope of finding a safe way to control the explosive’s detonation. In 1863 he invented a practical detonator consisting of a wooden plug inserted into a larger charge of nitroglycerin held in a metal container the explosion of the plug’s small charge of black powder serves to detonate the much more powerful charge of liquid nitroglycerin. This detonator marked the beginning of Nobel’s reputation as an inventor as well as the fortune he was to acquire as a maker of explosives. In 1865 Nobel invented an improved detonator called a blasting cap it consisted of a small metal cap containing a charge of mercury fulminate that can be exploded by either shock or moderate heat. The invention of the blasting cap inaugurated the modern use of high explosives.

Nitroglycerin itself, however, remained difficult to transport and extremely dangerous to handle. So dangerous, in fact, that Nobel’s nitroglycerin factory blew up in 1864, killing his younger brother Emil and several other people. Undaunted by this tragic accident, Nobel built several factories to manufacture nitroglycerin for use in concert with his blasting caps. These factories were as safe as the knowledge of the time allowed, but accidental explosions still occasionally occurred. Nobel’s second important invention was that of dynamite in 1867. By chance, he discovered that nitroglycerin was absorbed to dryness by kieselguhr, a porous siliceous earth, and the resulting mixture was much safer to use and easier to handle than nitroglycerin alone. Nobel named the new product dynamite (from Greek dynamis, “power”) and was granted patents for it in Great Britain (1867) and the United States (1868). Dynamite established Nobel’s fame worldwide and was soon put to use in blasting tunnels, cutting canals, and building railways and roads.

In the 1870s and ’80s Nobel built a network of factories throughout Europe to manufacture dynamite, and he formed a web of corporations to produce and market his explosives. He also continued to experiment in search of better ones, and in 1875 he invented a more powerful form of dynamite, blasting gelatin, which he patented the following year. Again by chance, he had discovered that mixing a solution of nitroglycerin with a fluffy substance known as nitrocellulose results in a tough, plastic material that has a high water resistance and greater blasting power than ordinary dynamites. In 1887 Nobel introduced ballistite, one of the first nitroglycerin smokeless powders and a precursor of cordite. Although Nobel held the patents to dynamite and his other explosives, he was in constant conflict with competitors who stole his processes, a fact that forced him into protracted patent litigation on several occasions.

Nobel’s brothers Ludvig and Robert, in the meantime, had developed newly discovered oilfields near Baku (now in Azerbaijan) along the Caspian Sea and had themselves become immensely wealthy. Alfred’s worldwide interests in explosives, along with his own holdings in his brothers’ companies in Russia, brought him a large fortune. In 1893 he became interested in Sweden’s arms industry, and the following year he bought an ironworks at Bofors, near Varmland, that became the nucleus of the well-known Bofors arms factory. Besides explosives, Nobel made many other inventions, such as artificial silk and leather, and altogether he registered more than 350 patents in various countries.

Nobel’s complex personality puzzled his contemporaries. Although his business interests required him to travel almost constantly, he remained a lonely recluse who was prone to fits of depression. He led a retired and simple life and was a man of ascetic habits, yet he could be a courteous dinner host, a good listener, and a man of incisive wit. He never married, and apparently preferred the joys of inventing to those of romantic attachment. He had an abiding interest in literature and wrote plays, novels, and poems, almost all of which remained unpublished. He had amazing energy and found it difficult to relax after intense bouts of work. Among his contemporaries, he had the reputation of a liberal or even a socialist, but he actually distrusted democracy, opposed suffrage for women, and maintained an attitude of benign paternalism toward his many employees. Though Nobel was essentially a pacifist and hoped that the destructive powers of his inventions would help bring an end to war, his view of mankind and nations was pessimistic.

By 1895 Nobel had developed angina pectoris, and he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his villa in San Remo, Italy, in 1896. At his death his worldwide business empire consisted of more than 90 factories manufacturing explosives and ammunition. The opening of his will, which he had drawn up in Paris on November 27, 1895, and had deposited in a bank in Stockholm, contained a great surprise for his family, friends, and the general public. He had always been generous in humanitarian and scientific philanthropies, and he left the bulk of his fortune in trust to establish what came to be the most highly regarded of international awards, the Nobel Prizes.


Sporting Highlights for 1976

Here are some of the sporting highlights in the world of sport for 1976. The major events of this year in sport were the Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

The most notable event of the Winter Olympics was the fourth straight gold medal win by ex-Soviet Union's men's hockey team. This dominance was the reason the US win against the ex-Soviet in the next Olympics was of such prominence.

In the Summer Olympics, 25 African teams boycotted the games because New Zealand, which played in apartheid South Africa, was allowed to participate. The most memorable event of the games was provided by a 14 year old Nadia Comăneci. She scored a perfect 10 once believed as unattainable. These Games were also the first to introduce testing for anabolic steroids and other prohibited substances.

In men's tennis, Bjorn Borg won his third grand slam title and his first at Wimbledon defeating Ilie Năstase in straight sets. Borg went on to win the Wimbledon in the next four years, to finish his career with five Wimbledon and 11 grand slams. Jimmy Connors won the US Open for the second time. Chris Evert, who had won two grand slam titles in each of the last two years kept her pace to win two more on this year.

Muhammad Ali, the all-time great boxer, won four heavyweight title fights in the year which also included the technical knockout of Richard Dunn in Munich.

Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 1976.

Dato Resultater
Jan Tennis Australia Open won by Mark Edmondson and Evonne Cawley
Feb Super Bowl held in Miami won by Pittsburgh
Feb 4-15 Winter Olympic Games were held in Innsbruck, Austria
April Golf Masters won by Raymond Floyd
Kan Tennis French Open won by Adriano Panatta and Sue Barker
juni Golf US Open won by Jerry Pate
juli the Cycling Tour de France won by Lucien Van Impe
juli Tennis Wimbledon won by Bjorn Borg and Chris Evert
juli Golf British Open won by Johnny Miller
July 17 - Aug 1 Summer Olympic Games were held in Montreal, Canada
Aug Golf US PGA won by Dave Stockton (his 2nd title)
Sep Tennis US Open won by Jimmy Connors and Chris Evert
Oct The Baseball World Series won by Cincinnati Reds

Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.