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Set fra siden af ​​HMS Glory

Set fra siden af ​​HMS Glory


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Fleet Air Arm Carrier Warfare, Kev Darling. En komplet historie om Fleet Air Arms brug af hangarskibe, fra de tidligste forsøg under Første Verdenskrig, gennem Anden Verdenskrig, hvor luftfartsselskaberne blev de vigtigste kapitalskibe i flåden, Koreakrigen, der så flåden Air Arm involverede fra begyndelsen til slutningen, Falklands-krigen, som igen understregede det vigtige for luftfartsselskabet og helt op til de nuværende 'superbærere'. [læs hele anmeldelsen]


HMS P 33 (P 33)

Bemærk, at vi stadig arbejder på dette afsnit.

KommandørFraTil
1Lt. Reginald Denis Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN21. april 194120. august 1941

Du kan hjælpe med at forbedre vores kommandosektion
Klik her for at indsende begivenheder/kommentarer/opdateringer til dette fartøj.
Brug dette, hvis du opdager fejl eller ønsker at forbedre denne skibsside.

Bemærkelsesværdige begivenheder, der involverer P 33, omfatter:

Historien om HMS P 33, som er samlet på denne side, er hentet fra patruljerapporter og logbøger for denne ubåd. Rettelser og detaljer vedrørende oplysninger fra fjendens side (f.eks. Sammensætningen af ​​angrebne konvojer) er venligt givet af hr. Platon Alexiades, en søforsker fra Canada.

Denne side blev sidst opdateret i december 2018.

29. maj 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.RD Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) forlod sin bygherre ved Barrow for Holy Loch. (1)

30. maj 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) ankom til Holy Loch i en periode med forsøg og træning. (1)

17. juni 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) forlod Holy Loch til Gibraltar. Hun blev eskorteret til Bishops Rock af HMS Cutty Sark (Cdr. (Retd.) R.H. Mack, RN).

Da der ikke er nogen log tilgængelig for juni 1941, kan der ikke vises noget kort. (2)

26. juni 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) ankom til Gibraltar. (1)

28. juni 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) forlod Gibraltar til Malta.

For de daglige positioner for HMS P 33 under denne passage se kortet herunder. Da der ikke er nogen log tilgængelig for juni 1941, kan der kun vises positioner fra 1. juli 1941 og frem på kortet.

6. juli 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) ankom til Malta. (3)

11. juli 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) forlod Malta for sin første krigspatrulje. Hendes oprindelige ordre var at patruljere til nordvest for Lampedusa og danne en patruljelinje med Ursula og ubesejret for at opsnappe en sydgående konvoj, men intet blev set. Senere blev hun beordret til at patruljere ved Hammamet -bugten, og endelig blev hun beordret til at indtage en patruljestilling syd for Pantelleria.

For de daglige og angrebspositioner for HMS P 33 under denne patrulje, se kortet herunder.

15. juli 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) angreb en konvoj og torpederede og sank den italienske købmand Barbarigo (5293 BRT, bygget 1930) ud for Pantellaria -øen i position 36 ° 27'N, 11 ° 54'Ø.

(Alle tider er zone -2) 1407 timer - konvojen P 33 blev advaret om blev set i position 36 ° 27'N, 11 ° 54'Ø.

1416 timer - Det blev bemærket, at konvojen bestod af 5 halvt lastede købmænd. Disse var i to kolonner med to skibe hver i kø foran med endnu et skib førende i midten af ​​de to søjler. Ledsageren blev identificeret som seks torpedobåde i Spica -klasse i par på to, et par foran og et par på hvert kvarter af konvojen. Ledsagerne var under konstant hjul. Også et fly var overhead. P 33 var ved 11000 yards og lukket for at angribe det førende skib i styrbordssøjlen. Skibets størrelse blev anslået til 7000 tons. (Denne konvoj fra Tripoli til Napoli bestod af de italienske købmænd Rialto (6099 BRT, bygget 1927), Andrea Gritti (6338 BRT, bygget 1939), Sebastiano Venier (6311 BRT, bygget 1940), ovennævnte Barbarigo (5293 BRT, bygget 1930) og den tyske købmand Ankara (4768 BRT, bygget 1937) og blev eskorteret af de italienske destroyere Lanzerotto Malocello, Fuciliere og Alpino og de italienske torpedobåde Procione, Pegaso og Orsa). Konvojen havde sejlet fra Tripoli kl. 1600 den 14. juli på vej mod Napoli.

1439 timer - Fire torpedoer blev affyret mod det tilsigtede mål fra 2500 yards. 2 hits blev hørt cirka 2 minutter efter affyringen. Næsten øjeblikkeligt begyndte et kraftigt kontraangreb, der varede indtil 1605 timer, i alt 116 dybdeladninger blev droppet, men kun et mønster faldt tæt ved at slå nogle lys ud. Efter angrebet på købmanden løjtnant Whiteway-Wilkinson tog P 33 til 70 fod, men hun mistede sit trim, og kontrollen blev først genvundet ved 310 fod. På grund af denne ekstreme dybde opstod flere lækager, og trykskroget blev forvrænget. Dette tvang Lt. Whiteway-Wilkinson til at opgive patruljen og tage til Malta for reparationer. Denne skade skyldtes ikke dybdeladningen, men den store dybde, som P 33 endte med at miste sit trim.

Ifølge italienske kilder var ubåden blevet observeret af CANT Z.501/6 af 144^ Squadriglia og angrebet med to bomber. Destroyeren Fuciliere havde set torpedosporene og faldt 28 dybdeladninger, efterfulgt af Alpino, der faldt flere dybdeafgifter. Destroyerne sluttede sig igen til konvojen, og Pegaso blev beordret til at hente de overlevende, mens Procione og Orsa blev løsrevet for at jage ubåden, mens CANT Z.501/2 af 144^ Squadriglia også sluttede sig til jagten. ( 4 )

16. juli 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) sluttede sin første krigspatrulje på Malta. (4)

21. juli 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) blev forankret i nr. 2 dok på Malta til reparationer. (3)

28. juli 1941
HMS P 33 (løjtnant R.D. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) blev fjernet. (3)

6. august 1941
HMS P 33 (Lt.R. Whiteway-Wilkinson, DSC, RN) forlod Malta for sin 2. krigspatrulje. Hun blev beordret til at positionere 33 ° 20'N, 13 ° 00'E, en del af en patruljelinje med HMS P 32 (Lt. David Anthony Baily Abdy, RN) og HMS Unique (Lt. AF Collett, RN) patrulje ud for Tripoli . Den 15. august forsøgte Unique at få kontakt med P 33 af SST, men uden held blev hun sandsynligvis mineret et stykke tid før på en sektioner af 'T' minefeltet. (5)

  1. ADM 199/2565
  2. ADM 199/400
  3. ADM 173/16870
  4. ADM 199/1120
  5. ADM 199/1925

ADM -numre angiver dokumenter på British National Archives i Kew, London.


Indhold

3-visningstegning som afsluttet i 1917

Under første verdenskrig blev admiral Fisher forhindret i at bestille en forbedret version af det foregående Berømt-klasse slagkrydsere ved en krigsbegrænsning, der forbød konstruktion af skibe, der var større end lette krydsere. For at opnå skibe, der er egnede til traditionelle slagkrydsningsroller, såsom spejdning efter flåder og jagt på fjendtlige raiders, besluttede han sig for et design med minimal rustning af en let krydser og bevæbning af en slagkrydser. Han begrundede deres eksistens ved at hævde, at han havde brug for hurtige, lavvandede skibe til sit baltiske projekt, en plan om at invadere Tyskland via dets baltiske kyst. Ώ ] ΐ ]

Herlig havde en samlet længde på 786  feet 9  inches (239,8  m), en bjælke på 81 fod (24,7  m) og et dybgang på 25  feet 10  inches (7,9  m) ved dyb belastning. Hun fortrængte 19.180 lange tons (19.490  t) ved belastning og 22.560 lange tons (22.922  t) ved dyb belastning. Α ] Herlig og hendes søstre var de første store krigsskibe i Royal Navy, der havde gearmøller med dampturbiner. For at spare tid blev installationen brugt i letcruiser Champion, den første krydser i Royal Navy med gearmøller, blev simpelthen fordoblet. Parsons-møllerne blev drevet af atten Yarrow-rør med små rør. De blev designet til at producere i alt 90.000 aksel hestekræfter (67.113  kW) ved et arbejdstryk på 235  psi (1.620  kPa 17  kgf/cm 2). Under skibets forkortede søforsøg nåede hun 31,42 knob (58,19  km/t 36,16  mph). Β ]

Skibet var designet til normalt at bære 750 lange tons brændselsolie, men kunne maksimalt bære 3.160 lange tons (3.210  t). Ved fuld kapacitet kunne hun dampe i anslået 6.000 sømil (11.110  km 6.900  mi) med en hastighed på 20 knob (37  km/t 23  mph). Γ ]

Herlig bar fire BL 15-tommer Mark I-kanoner i to dobbelte hydraulisk drevne Mark I* tårne, en hver for (A) og agter ("Y"). Hendes sekundære bevæbning bestod af atten BL 4-tommer Mark IX-kanoner monteret i seks manuelt drevne tredobbelte T.I. Mark I monteres. Γ ] Disse beslag havde de tre ridebukser for tæt på hinanden, og de 23 læssere havde en tendens til at forstyrre hinanden. Dette negerede snarere bjergets tilsigtede formål med at levere en høj brandhastighed mod torpedobåde og andre mindre fartøjer. Δ ] Et par QF 3 tommer 20 cwt [Mærke 1 ] luftværnskanoner blev monteret mod stormasten på Herlig. Hun monterede to nedsænkede rør til 21-tommers torpedoer, og 10 torpedoer blev båret. Γ ]


Bligh

HMS Bellona var et 74-kanons Bellona-klasse tredjerangsskib af Royal Navy. Designet af Sir Thomas Slade, var hun en prototype for de ikoniske 74-kanons skibe i sidste del af 1700-tallet. Designet af Bellona -klassen blev aldrig gentaget præcist, men Slade eksperimenterede lidt med linjerne, og Arrogant, Ramillies, Egmont og Elizabeth klasser var næsten identiske i størrelse, layout og struktur og havde kun små variationer i form af undervandsskroget. Culloden klasse skib af linjen var også ens, men lidt større. Således var over fyrre skibe nærsøstre af Bellona. & Quot Bellona blev bygget i Chatham, der startede den 10. maj 1758, blev søsat den 19. februar 1760 og blev taget i brug tre dage senere. Hun var det andet skib i Royal Navy, der bar navnet, og så tjeneste i syvårskrigen, den amerikanske revolutionskrig og Napoleonskrigene.
Umiddelbart efter idriftsættelsen blev HMS Bellona sendt for at slutte sig til den vestlige eskadrille og blokerede derefter Brest og sejlede fra Chatham den 8. april 1760. På det tidspunkt var Storbritannien midt i syvårskrigen mod Frankrig.

HMS Bellonas tid med den blokerende eskadrille var begivenhedsløs indtil den 13. august 1761. Den dag, mens han patruljerede ved floden Tagus i selskab med fregatten HMS Brilliant, opdagede Bellona det franske 74 -kanons 3. rats skib Courageux i selskab med 2 fregatter. De britiske skibe jagtede franskmændene i 14 timer, før de fangede dem og bragte dem til handling. HMS Brilliant angreb de 2 fregatter, mens HMS Bellona sad fast i Courageux. Det gik ikke godt for HMS Bellona til at begynde med, hun mistede sin mesengast efter 9 minutters hård kamp, ​​men da vragdele og ødelagt rigning var blevet skåret væk, begyndte HMS Bellona at få det bedre med det franske skib og faldt ned fjendens vigtigste og mizzen master. Den britiske praksis med at skyde i fjendeskibets skrog forårsagede frygtelige tab blandt det franske mandskab, og da Courageux slog hendes farver efter 2 timers kampe, var halvdelen af ​​hendes besætning på 600 mand døde eller såret. Bellona mistede derimod 6 døde med 28 mænd såret. Det franske skib var blevet alvorligt beskadiget og blev ført ind i floden Tagus til reparation, inden det blev sejlet tilbage til Storbritannien og blev taget i Royal Navy -tjeneste. Bellona lavede også sine egne reparationer på samme tid.




Bellona og Courageux ankommer til Spithead af Geoff Hunt

HMS Bellona blev betalt i 1762, da syvårskrigen var ved at være ved at være slut. Hun blev tildelt vagttjeneste i Portsmouth i 1764 og blev holdt rigget og bevæbnet med et token besætning på omkring 100 mand ombord. I 1771 blev skibet taget til Chatham og lagt op i det almindelige. Det betød, at der blev bygget et dækhus over hendes øvre dæk, og hendes kanoner, master og tilhørende rigning blev alle fjernet.

I 1775 startede den amerikanske uafhængighedskrig, og i 1778 begyndte Royal Navy at blive mobiliseret for at imødegå den stigende franske intervention i den krig. I 1778 beordrede admiralitetet, at HMS Bellona blev ombygget til tjeneste i kanalflåden, så skibet blev taget til kaj og fik en større ombygning, som omfattede beklædning af hendes nedre skrog i kobber. Ombygningen omfattede også udskiftning af hendes skydevåben med de dengang nye karronader.



1. Slyngebolt 2. Aftsyn 3. Udluftningshul 4. Forreste sigt 5. Første forstærkningsring 6. Tønde 7. Snude
8. Anden forstærkningsring 9. Azimutal drejning 10. Chock 11. Højde -drejning 12. Hjul 13. Mobil piedestal 14. Vogn 15. Pommel 16. Højdetråd.

. En karronade er en letvægts, kort rækkevidde, stor kaliberpistol, der i høj grad øgede den korte afstand ildkraft, der er tilgængelig for Royal Navy's skibe. Skibsmandsmodellen af ​​HMS Bellona var tidligere blevet brugt til at demonstrere princippet om kobberi til kongen. Af den grund eksisterer modellen stadig og er i samlingen af ​​National Maritime Museum i Greenwich.

Modellen af ​​Bellona, ​​der viser sit kobberede skrog

Hæksten viser den indviklede udskæring omkring hendes agterste galleri '.

HMS Bellona blev genoptaget i Grand Fleet og sejlede fra Chatham den 17. april 1780. Den 30. december 1780, i selskab med 3. sats HMS Marlborough, fangede HMS Bellona den hollandske 44 kanon fregattprins Carolina. Dette skib blev taget ind i Royal Navy og omdøbt til HMS Prinsesse Caroline. Den 12. april 1781 var HMS Bellona en del af en flåde på 29 skibe på linjen under viceadmiral George Darby, som eskorterede 100 forsyningsskibe til den anden nødhjælp i Gibraltar. Spanierne, der derefter lagde seige til Gibraltar, kunne ikke stoppe dem.


Kaptajn, Richard Onslow

Efter det blev HMS Bellona rapporteret af sin kaptajn, Richard Onslow, for at være i dårlig stand, så mellem maj og juli 1781 blev hun ombygget i Portsmouth. Derefter, indtil december samme år, var skibet i Nordsøen. Fra december 1781 til 11. september 1782 var hun i Portsmouth. På denne sejlads sejlede HMS Bellona som en del af en flåde og konvoj-eskorte for en yderligere lindring af Gibraltar under kommando af viceadmiral Richard 'Black Dlck' Howe. Denne flåde havde et enormt held. Umiddelbart før deres ankomst til Gibraltar blæste en storm op og spredte den fransk-spanske flåde, der blokerede havnen, og Howe og hans flåde var i stand til at komme ind i havnen uden modstand.

Efter den succes blev HMS Bellona beordret til Vestindien. ankommer fra Leeward Islands i januar 1783. På dette tidspunkt var den amerikanske uafhængighedskrig (i det mindste på fastlandet) gået tabt med overgivelsen general Cornwallis og hans hær i Yorktown. Franskmændene var ophørt med at være en stor trussel i området efter ødelæggelsen af ​​deres flåde af viceadmiral Rodney i slaget ved Saintes i april 1782. Paris-traktaten, der officielt sluttede krigen, var under forhandling på det tidspunkt og Royal Navy søgte at trække sine flåder ned. HMS Bellona var ikke længe i Caribien. Efter ankomsten i januar vendte hun tilbage til Portsmouth den 25. maj og blev nedlagt og lagt op i det sædvanlige den 7. juni.

HMS Bellona forblev i det almindelige i godt fire år. Hun blev bestilt den 3. oktober 1787, men betalte sig igen bare to måneder senere, den 7. december. I begyndelsen af ​​1789 blev hun omrigget og genbevæbnet og genoptaget som værn i Portsmouth. Den 18. august deltog skibet i en Fleet Review og mock kamp, ​​før det sejlede med Grand Fleet den følgende september. Skibet vendte tilbage til Portsmouth i oktober 1790 og genoptog sine vagttjenester den følgende januar. I juni 1791 var hun en del af en flåde, der blev mobiliseret som en del af en krigsskrækkelse med Rusland. Dette blev til intet, og skibet blev igen nedlagt, denne gang hjemme i Chatham.

I september 1792 skete der en politisk begivenhed, som i forbindelse med tiden var katastrofal. Efter tre års politisk uro afsatte befolkningen i Frankrig deres konge, Louis XVI, og en republik blev erklæret. HMS Bellona blev taget i dok og blev ombygget. Hun blev relanceret den 9. juli 1793 og genoptaget i Chatham den 18. Den nye revolutionære regering i Frankrig havde erklæret krig mod Storbritannien den 1. februar, og Royal Navy genoptog skibe så hurtigt som muligt. HMS Bellona forlod Chatham den 7. september 1793 for at slutte sig til Howes kanalflåde og blokere franske havne.




Bellona ud for Brest af Geoff Hunt.

Det tog ikke lang tid for HMS Bellona at komme ind i handlingen. Den 7. november 1793 deltog hun i en mislykket jagt på en fransk eskadrille. HMS Bellona deltog ikke i slaget ved den herlige første juni i 1794, men deltog i en jagt på en af ​​de overlevende franske eskadriller fem dage efter slaget, men undlod igen at engagere fjenden. Den 13. oktober 1794 blev HMS Bellona sendt til Caribien og ankom ud for Martinique den 14. november.

I løbet af de næste tre år var HMS Bellona aldrig langt fra handlingen. Den 5. januar 1795 deltog hun i en aktion mod en fransk eskadrille nær Guadeloupe og kæmpede med en spansk eskadrille den 7. februar 1797 ud for Caspagarde -øerne. I april 1797 deltog hun i et angreb på Puerto Rico. Hun blev sendt tilbage til Storbritannien og gik ind i en ombygning i Portsmouth i oktober 1797.


Lord St. Vincent.

I maj 1799 sluttede HMS Bellona sig til flåden under kommando af John Jervis, Lord St. Vincent ud for San Sebastian. Hun vendte tilbage til Torbay i september 1799.

Ved århundredeskiftet signalerede tsar Paul fra Rusland sin voksende beundring af Napoleon Bonaparte ved at love at sende sin baltiske flåde til at slutte sig til den franske flåde og truede med at lægge yderligere belastning på en allerede strakt Royal Navy. Danskerne, dengang neutrale, men begunstigede briterne, var blevet truet med invasion, hvis de ikke tillod russerne at transportere Skaggerak ind i Nordsøen. Dette satte dem i en umulig position, ligesom det gjorde briterne. Briterne sendte en flåde under kommando af admiral Sir Hyde Parker, kendt af hele flåden af ​​en eller anden grund som 'Batter Pudding'.

Vice-admiral Horatio Nelson var hans 2. i kommando. Deres mission var at sætte den danske flåde ud af ligningen og angribe København.
HMS Bellona sluttede sig til Hyde Parkers flåde den 18. marts 1801. Nelsons mission var at tage linjens mindre skibe til København og ødelægge de danske skibe der, mens Sir Hyde Parker holdt tilbage med de tungere skibe. Bellona blev tildelt som en del af Nelsons styrke.

Utilsigtet landede HMS Bellona på en stime på vej ind og blev reduceret til den del af en hjælpeløs tilskuer, da Nelsons skibe rev ind i danskerne. Det var under denne aktion den 3. april 1801, at Sir Hyde Parker signalerede Nelson til at frigøre sig på slagets højde. Nelson, vel vidende at slaget endnu ikke var vundet, rejste et teleskop for hans blinde øje og udbrød & quotJeg ser virkelig ikke signalet & quot og beordrede, at handlingen skulle fortsættes, indtil danskerne overgav sig.



Slaget om København: Nelsons britiske flåde sejler op ad Royal Channel for at angribe den danske flåde og Trekroner Citadel. De 3 britiske skibe på grund ligger til højre: Bellona, ​​Russell og Agamemnon.

Den 7. juli 1801 forlod HMS Bellona Baltikum og sluttede sig igen til den blokerende eskadrille ud for Cadiz.

Fem måneder senere var hun i Caribien, men hendes alder og mange års hårdt brug tog hårdt på det nu gamle skib. Den 16. marts 1802 rapporterede hendes kaptajn, Thomas Bertie, til admiralitetet fra Jamaica, at HMS Bellona var 'et gammelt og skørt skib'. Som følge heraf blev hun beordret tilbage til Storbritannien, og ved ankomsten til Portsmouth den 6. juli 1802 blev dekommissioneret og placeret i det almindelige.

I 1805 var der en fuldstændig skræmmende invasion. Den franske og spanske flåde var til søs under kommando af den franske admiral Villeneuve. Den franske hær lejrede en masse omkring de franske kanalhavne. Selvom Nelson nu ved at føre sit flag i Victory var på jagt, manglede den kongelige flåde desperat skibe og alle tilgængelige skibe, selv gamle skøre som HMS Bellona blev trukket tilbage i tjeneste. Den 3. april 1805 blev Bellona forankret i Portsmouth og var udstyret med Snodgrass System med intern diagonal afstivning for at stive hendes gamle og trætte rammer. Hun blev relanceret i Portsmouth den 26. juni 1805.

I oktober 1805, efter at have gået glip af hovedbegivenheden i Trafalgar, blev hun tildelt en eskadre på fem skibe på linjen under kaptajn Sir Richard Strachan. Desværre blev hun adskilt fra hans styrke og savnede slaget ved Cape Ortegal den 4. november 1805, da Strachans styrke fandt og erobrede en gruppe franske overlevende fra slaget ved Trafalgar.

Hun vendte senere tilbage til Plymouth og afgik der den 19. maj 1806 på vej til Barbados. Den 14. september 1806, mens hun var i selskab med HMS Belle Isle (74) og HMS Melampus (36) ud for Cape Henry, Virginia, så hun det franske 74 kanonskib Imp tueux, der sejlede under en juryerig efter at være blevet ødelagt i en orkan . Det franske skib led desperat efter en amerikansk havn at sætte ind. I stedet for at stå over for en ulige kamp mod briterne, valgte den franske kommandør at køre sit skib i land. På trods af at det franske skib nu var på grund på amerikansk jord, åbnede Melampus alligevel ild. Dette blev fulgt op af et bådangreb med både fra både Bellona og Belle Isle, der bar mænd i land for at fange det franske fartøj. Imp tueux blev senere beordret til at blive brændt.

I juli 1807 var HMS Bellona involveret i en hændelse i Hampton Roads vedrørende indtryk af amerikanske søfolk i Royal Navy. Dette var en stor strid mellem amerikanerne og briterne på det tidspunkt. Ørkener fra Royal Navy havde fundet ud af, at hvis det lykkedes dem at komme ombord på et amerikansk skib, kunne de søge asyl og blive tilbudt amerikansk statsborgerskab. Dette fik Royal Navy til at stoppe og søge amerikanske skibe til søs efter ørkener og presse alle, der ikke var i stand til at bevise amerikansk statsborgerskab i britisk tjeneste. Denne praksis var en af ​​årsagerne til krigen i 1812 mellem Storbritannien og USA.

Den 7. marts 1808 var HMS Bellona en del af flåden, som ikke formåede at komme ind i havnen ved baskiske veje. Slaget ved baskiske veje endte alligevel som en britisk sejr, på trods af at flåden ikke kunne engagere fjenden, da ildskibe blev sendt ind. I det efterfølgende kaos drev mange franske skibe i land eller på klipper og blev ødelagt af langdistance skud fra mindre skibe og af angrebspartier.

I juli 1809 deltog hun i den mislykkede Walcheren -kampagne, hvor en sumpet ø i Scheldt -flodmundingen blev invaderet af elementer fra den britiske hær.

Den 18. december 1810 deltog Bellona i erobringen af ​​den franske privatmand L'Heros du Nord.

1811 og 1812 og det meste af 1813 så HMS Bellona ansat i blokering af hollandske havne, bortset fra en tur til St Helena i Atlanterhavet i maj 1813. I september 1813 vendte hun tilbage til de baskiske veje, men var tilbage på blokade ved Cherbourg ved Oktober.

I 1814 var flådeelementet i Napoleonskrigen forbi, og den kongelige flåde søgte igen at trække sine flåder ned. HMS Bellona ankom hjem til Chatham den 4. februar 1814. Den 19. juli 1814 lå Bellona for sidste gang i Chatham og blev brudt op i kajen i løbet af september 1814.

HMS Bellonas karriere havde omfattet nogle af de mest turbulente år i Britains historie. Hun havde været i tjeneste gennem den periode, hvor 74 kanon 3. sats havde dannet rygraden i Royal Navy's flåder. Hun var et af de længst tjente skibe i datidens flåde, da hun var 54 år gammel, da hendes karriere endelig sluttede. Hendes karriere så etableringen af ​​Royal Navy som den dominerende væbnede styrke i verden, en som gav Storbritannien total kontrol over verdens oceaner og maritime handelsruter i et århundrede indtil udbruddet af første verdenskrig.

Hun var genstand for bogen 'Anatomy of the Ship-the 74 Gun Ship HMS Bellona' (ISBN 0-85177-368-0), som giver præcise detaljer og måltegninger af hendes design. Dette har igen ført til, at HMS Bellona er genstand for mange smukke modelsæt, der nu er tilgængelige. her er et billede af en af ​​de mange tilgængelige modeller:

Skibet har også optrådt i fiktion og optrådt i Patrick O'Brians Jack Aubrey -romaner 'The Commodore' og 'The Yellow Admiral', med hovedrollen som skibet, hvor Aubrey flyver sin Broad Pennant.


Set fra siden af ​​HMS Glory - History

Klik HER for at fange vinden i dine sejl!

Glædelig Tall Ship tirsdag alle sammen! LOL

Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Under Tall Ships Festival i 2009

HMS Bounty. i ét med havet. global voyager. filmstjerne. dedikeret til at bevare den fine kunst med firkantet sejlads.

Bounty er kendt for en maritim mytteri, der fandt sted for over 200 år siden, og er stadig berømt og berygtet. Tusinder krydser hendes store dæk under havnebesøg og spekulerer på, hvordan livet var dengang og nu. Du kender hende også fra hendes moderne film. I 1960 var det Marlon Brando som Fletcher Christian i Mutiny on the Bounty. I dag er det Johnny Depp som kaptajn Jack Sparrow i Pirates of the Caribbean - Dead Man's Chest.

Bounty blev bygget i 1960 til MGM studios 'Mutiny on the Bounty med Marlon Brando. Siden har den nye Bounty medvirket i flere film i langfilm og snesevis af tv-shows og historiske dokumentarfilm.

Studierne bestilte skibet fra skibsforfatterne i Smith og Ruhland i Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, til at bestille en ny Bounty, der skulle bygges fra bunden. Fuldstændig søværdig og bygget lige som det ville have været 200 år før, blev den nye Bounty konstrueret ud fra det originale skibs tegninger, der stadig er registreret i de britiske admiralitetsarkiver.

Nikon D90: Nikkor 18-200mmVR: B & amp-polarisator @ 35mm: 1/125s @ f/8: ISO 200

Taget nær Newport RI i slutningen af ​​Tall ships -festivalen. Det gik desværre tabt til søs med to liv 29/10/2012 under orkanen Sandy. Nikon D800 Leica 100 mm apo makro. Se alle størrelser for superhøj opløsning.

S/v Bounty er oppe på Detroit -floden ved Windsor.

Bounty var en forstørret rekonstruktion af det originale Royal Navy sejlskib HMS Bounty fra 1787. Bygget i Lunenburg, Nova Scotia i 1960, sank hun ved kysten af ​​North Carolina under orkanen Sandy den 29. oktober 2012.

The Bounty har det sjovt i lykkeligere tider.

Her er et bevidst forvrænget 'faux-fish-eye' (10 mm ukorrigeret vertorama) af HMS Bounty set fra Trinity Landing i Cowes.

Jeg var skuffet over det og mig selv, da jeg følte mig virkelig uinspireret af det hele, og jeg kan huske, at jeg undrede mig over, hvad der var galt med mig, det skulle have været en så spændende mulighed. Et par timer senere fandt jeg ud af det, da jeg endte på hospitalet, men der er et par skud, som jeg nåede at fange inden da på isle of wight pictures -webstedet.

© 2011 Jason Swain, Alle rettigheder forbeholdes

Dette billede er ikke tilgængeligt til brug på websteder, blogs eller andre medier uden fotografens udtrykkelige skriftlige tilladelse.

Links til min hjemmeside, facebook og twitter findes på min flickr -profil

William Bligh, kaptajn for den berømte Hendes Majestæts Service BOUNTY (af berømmelsen Mutiny On The Bounty) krediteres med at have bragt Ackee fra Vestafrika til de caribiske øer og specifikt til Jamaica i 1793.

Det er derfor ikke underligt, at Ackee, medlem af familien Sapindaceae (Soapberry) og slægtning til Lychee og Longan har afledt sit videnskabelige navn Blighia sapida til ære for kaptajn Bligh.

Ackee er nu blevet et vigtigt element i forskellige caribiske retter, hvor den mest berømte er Jamaicas nationalret, Ackee with Salt Cod.

Mærkeligt nok er frugten af ​​Ackee ikke spiselig. Det er kun de kødfulde ariler omkring frøene, der er spiselige. Resten af ​​frugten, inklusive frøene er giftige. Frugten må først plukkes, når frugten er åbnet naturligt, og skal være frisk og ikke overmoden. Umodne og overmodne Ackees er også giftige.

Det indre af en moden Akee åbnet i dens 3 ydre segmenter, er vist her med dens indhold.

Tropical Research & amp Education Center (TREC), Univ. Af Florida, Homestead, Florida, USA.

Billederne af HMS Bounty i mit HMS Bounty sæt blev taget i august 2010 ved Great Lakes Tall Ships Challenge i Chicago, Illinois. www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/sets/72157631897993210.

Det kan se ud til, at jeg var mere tiltrukket af linjerne og perspektiverne i Trinity Landing, der førte til fregatten HMS Bounty, end jeg var for selve det høje skib.

Når jeg ser tilbage, er de de eneste skud, jeg kan lide nu, så jeg tror, ​​at det nok er sandt, undskyld til alle piratfans og elskere af historiske både, men jeg kan bare lide det, jeg kan lide, og det er det, jeg prøver at skyde mest.

Du kan se mere fra dagen på webstedet isle of wight pictures.

© 2011 Jason Swain, Alle rettigheder forbeholdes

Dette billede er ikke tilgængeligt til brug på websteder, blogs eller andre medier uden fotografens udtrykkelige skriftlige tilladelse.

Links til min hjemmeside, facebook og twitter findes på min flickr -profil

Mange billeder, herunder fotos, der ikke er offentliggjort på flickr eller facebook, kan findes på mit websted, www.wowography.com Kig forbi og tjek det!

Set her i Halifax, Nova Scotia til Tall Ships Festival juli 2012.

Bounty sank ud for North Carolina, tre måneder senere, den 29. oktober 2012. [Digitale effekter- daguerreotype/sepia]

Jeg spekulerer på, om kaptajn Bligh eller de andre medlemmer af Bountys besætning vidste, at deres historie stadig ville være berømt mere end 200 år senere. Dette skib blev bestilt og bygget til Hollywood -filmen fra 1962, men har levet videre for at uddanne offentligheden om hendes sande rødder og historie. Det er et smukt skib og var sandsynligvis det næstmest søgte skib til at fotografere, da hun kom ind i San Francisco Bay i Parade of Sailing Ships til Festival of Sail. Mens jeg sender dette, forbereder jeg mig på at tage tilbage til San Francisco for at følge op med nogle nærbilleder og måske endda gå ombord på den berømte genindspilning.

Skibet optræder regelmæssigt på film som en række forskellige skibe. Muligvis er hendes mest berømte rolle uden for den, hun blev bygget til, i Disney -filmen Pirates of the Caribbean II. Detaljer taget fra Festival of Sail om hendes statistik.

Ejer: HMS Bounty Organization, LLC

Bygget: 1960-1961 på Smith & amp Rhuland Shipyard i Lunenberg, Nova Scotia

Maksimal kapacitet: 12 i gang, 150 liggepladser på dækket til 49

Og fra skibenes officielle websted:

HMS Bounty. i ét med havet. global voyager. filmstjerne. dedikeret

til at bevare den fine kunst med firkantet sejlads.

Kendt for et maritimt mytteri, der fandt sted for over 200 år siden, Bounty

forbliver berømt og berygtet. Tusinder krydser hendes rigelige dæk under havnen

besøg og spekulerede på, hvordan livet var dengang og nu. Du kender hende fra hende

også moderne film. I 1960 var det Marlon Brando som Fletcher Christian

i Mutiny on the Bounty. I dag er det Johnny Depp som kaptajn Jack Sparrow i

Pirates of the Caribbean - Dead Man's Chest.

Eventyrene fortsætter dagligt. Bounty forlod Skt.Petersborg, Florida i april

6, 2008 for vestkysten med stop i Bahamas til en filmoptagelse. Fra

der quotsejlede vi & ind i Panamakanalen, hvor Bounty ikke har været siden

1990'erne. Vores tidsplan for 2008 fortsætter og fører os op på vestkysten

besøger Victoria British Columbia, Tacoma, Port Alberni, San Francisco,

Monterey, Kanaløerne, San Diego og Los Angeles for at nævne nogle få. Fra

der vil vi være på vej til Hawaii og tilbyde en fire ugers sejltur

påbegyndelse fra San Diego den 9/15/08. Efter en 2 ugers mellemlanding på et par af

Hawaiian Islands vender vi tilbage til San Diego og derefter til Galapagos

Øer, inden vi tog tilbage gennem Panamakanalen og hjem til St.

Petersborg Florida ankommer der i begyndelsen af ​​januar 2009. For et større

perspective of life on board a Tall Ship , you may book a passage and be

part of the crew as we embark on a history-laden voyage for the Bounty.

* a list of my photography gear

* to sign up for my monthly newsletter

The replica ship Bounty, shown at anchor in the St. Clair River, off Port Huron, Michigan, in the late 1980's. This full-size replica of the original British ship, HMS Bounty, was built in 1960 in the shipyard at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, Canada, for use in the the movie "Mutiny on the Bounty" starring Marlon Brando. The ship was lost at sea on 29 October 2012 off the coast of North Carolina during Hurricane Sandy. The ship's captain and another crew member were lost.

View On Black rigging on the H.M.S. Bounty tall ship featured in the movies "Mutiny on the Bounty" and "Pirates of the Caribbean" .

Please don't use any of my images on websites, blogs or other media without my explicit written permission. © All rights reserved

The HMS Bounty heading out the harbour and the Picton Castle( I think) heading back in, getting themselves in position

On explore July 28 at 448, 390 July 29, #98 July 30

The HMS Bounty, a 1960s replica of the original, sank today off of Cape Hatteras. It recently visited Annanpolis in June.

The HMS Bounty was docked in Cork this weekend.

The tall ship was built in 1960 for the film Mutiny on the Bounty starring Marlon Brando.The tall ship set sail from San Juan at the beginning of April and it took the ship 37 days to cross the Atlantic to begin their European tour. This ship also featured in Pirates of the Caribbean, Dead Man's Chest, Treasure Island, Spongebob Squarepants and Yellowbeard. The decks get scrubbed with salt water for up to half an hour every day to preserve the wood.

Many images including photos not published to flickr or facebook can be found on my website, www.wowography.com Stop by and check it out!

I needed a creative illustration, so I used my snow nursery shot as the premise.

A composit of various scenes from Lake Ontario.

This little child is standing were the famous actors - Johnny Depp, Clark Gable, John Wayne and Marlon Brando once stood.

He is clearly amazed by the whole scene.

The Bounty enters Maryport harbour as a torrential rain storm begins in August 2007.

Claudene was a direct descendant of Fletcher Christian, famous for his part in the mutiny on the Bounty, and HMS Bounty was built in the 1960s for the film' Mutiny on the Bounty'.

Charlotte Harbor | Port of Rochester

Many images including photos not published to flickr or facebook can be found on my website, www.wowography.com Stop by and check it out!

The plaque, situated on a wall next to the quay in the town centre speaks for itself.

Thank you for your visit and your comments, they are greatly appreciated.

The "Pride of Baltimore II" fires its cannons as it leaves Halifax, Nova Scotia, behind a replica of the "HMS Bounty." Part of the "Tall Ships 2012 Festival" sail past. See my-waterfront.ca/tallships/the-ships for more information.

Update: Tragically, the "HMS Bounty" sank off the eastern seaboard of the United States during Hurricane Sandy, October 2012, with the loss of two lives.

The replica tall-ship looking so much better here than in those last images as she was sunk by Superstorm Sandy, 15 of the 16 crew rescued, but the captain still missing.

Lots of images of her last moments online, pretty dramatic to see her sinking for real and not in a movie

Seen here in the solent at Cowes on the Isle of Wight, and for some reason i wanted to create an uncluttered image with lots of space as my tribute, so i used CS6 Content-Aware-Fill and Content-Aware-Scale , and then a little flypaper texture for a suitable vintage feel to it. So a bit of hollywood-like fantasy in creating the scene (but the clouds really were like that.) Not really sure why i felt compelled to make and post this, i have a whole folder of images of her visit to the island last year, just seemed like now was the best time to share another one.

Thoughts going out to everyone affected by the storm, i know some of my flickr friends live in the path, hoping you are all safe tonight.

©2012 Jason Swain, All Rights Reserved

This image is not available for use on websites, blogs or other media without the explicit written permission of the photographer.

Links to facebook and twitter can be found on my flickr profile

PLEASE, no multi invitations, glitters or self promotion in your comments, THEY WILL BE DELETED. My photos are FREE for anyone to use, just give me credit and it would be nice if you let me know, thanks - NONE OF MY PICTURES ARE HDR.

The Bounty has sunk off North Carolina (29 October, 2012) . due to hurricane Sandy. At least two crew members of the Nova Scotia built (Lunenberg in 1960) replica are missing after abandoning ship off the coast of North Carolina.

1 of the 2 was found but unresponsive. on the way to hospital, she passed away. The captain is still missing.

This is a very old posting of mine, from 2008.

HMS Bounty, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

It was sad to hear the fate of the Bounty today. (Oct 29, 2012) She sank in the Atlantic in the high waves of Hurricane Sandy today. Fourteen crew members were rescued and 1 died andthe Captain was never found. www.cnn.com/2014/06/12/us/hms-bounty-tall-ship-sinking-in.

The HMS Bounty heading out the harbour and the Picton Castle( I think) heading back in, getting themselves in position for the Parade of sail in Halifax in 2009

The HMS Bounty, built in 1960 for the movie "Mutiny on the Bounty" with Marlon Brando. This ship took center stage in the famous story of Captain Bligh and his mutinous crew. The spirit of Lieutenant Fletcher Christian awaits!

Saddly the replica of the tall ship HMS Bounty sank today off North Carolina (29 October, 2012) the result of hurricane Sandy. Two crew members of her crew are missing after abandoning ship.

Caption from my original post: Figurehead from the tall ship HMS BOUNTY. This replica of the original British tall ship on which the famous "Mutiny on the Bounty" took place on April 28, 1789, was recreated for the 1960 movie starring Marlon Brando. View On Black

Photographed at the Toronto Waterfront Tall Ship Festival 2010.

Sail Area: 10000 square feet

Docked at the historic NEW BEDFORD, MASS - aka - THE WHALING CITY - docks.

A waterborne parade of nine tall ships from ports across North America and Europe sailed into Duluth, Minnesota's harbor on Lake Superior Thursday, July 29, kicking off a four day festival that attracted more than 200,000 visitors. The ship in front is the HMS Bounty that was built in 1960 for MGM studios' movie Mutiny on the Bounty with Marlon Brando. Since then, the new Bounty has starred in several feature-length films and dozens of TV shows including Pirates of the Caribbean – Dead Man's Chest featuring Johnny Depp as Captain Jack Sparrow. Duluth was the fourth stop on the American Sail Training Association's Great Lakes United Tall Ships Challenge, a fleet of international and domestic vessels racing to six cities in the U.S. and Canada. Looks best if you View On Black

Due to the recent sinking of the HMS BOUNTY during Hurricane Sandy I remembered I had taken a few photos when it was here in 2010. The ill-fated tall ship which sank Monday off the coast of eastern U.S. in hurricane Sandy.

The crew member who died when the HMS Bounty sank during Hurricane Sandy had written on her Facebook page that she was a descendent of the original Bounty mutineer, Fletcher Christian.

"Claudene Christian, 42, was pulled from the sea and hoisted aboard a Coast Guard helicopter on Monday afternoon. She was taken to Albemarle Hospital in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, where she was pronounced dead."

I hope they find Captain Robin Walbridge, he remains missing at this time. Good courage to his family during these difficult times.

VIDEO: Coast Guard Rescues Crew from HMS Bounty

i must go down to the seas again ,

to the lonely sea and the sky,

and all i ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by

The following is from The HMS Bounty Facebook Page:

"A Relief fund has been set up by both HMS Bounty Organization AND a couple of our former beloved crew members. We are working with the former crew members as well as initiating another way of donating to help raise as much money as possible for our 14 surviving crew as well as the families of Claudene Christian AND Captain Robin Walbridge. Please find it in your hearts to help out. You can donate via paypal at [email protected] or by going to our website and clicking on the online store where you will see a button to donate via paypal.

We thank everyone for the support and prayers!"

Tall Ship HMS Bounty during the Tall Ship Festival in Chicago Harbor 2010. This majestic tall ship fell victim to Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012. May God be with the crew and families of those lost and rescued in this tragedy.

Homeport: Greenport, New York

Sail Area: 10,000 square feet

Hollywood history sails to Navy Pier. MGM Studios built HMS Bounty in Nova Scotia in 1960 for the movie, Mutiny on the Bounty. The 1962 film tells the story of the famous maritime mutiny that occurred in the South Pacific in 1789. Now owned and operated by HMS Bounty Organization, LLC, Bounty will celebrate her 50th anniversary during her 2010 Great Lakes voyage. Her recent Hollywood film work includes starring roles in Treasure Island, Sponge Bob Square Pants, and Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean - Dead Man's Chest, Bounty is available for private functions, film production, commercials, and documentaries. Her mission is to preserve the skills of square rigged sailing in conjunction with youth education and sail training.

Source: HMS Bounty Organization LLC

HMS Bounty at Penn's Landing in Philadelphia, PA. This was our first view of this small tall-ship event in Philly.

HMS Bounty sank off Cape Hatteras during Hurricane Sandy (29Oct12), all but two of the crew were saved. #0635

There are so many news sites referencing the N.C. sinking that it is harder to find, through Google - pre-sinking information. Highlights that i remember are: This is the ship used in the 1962 Marlon Brando movie - "Mutiny on the Bounty". It has been around the world twice, and it was a major scene when the ship landed at Pitcairn island for the first time, where some Fletcher Christian descendants still live.

The most interesting thing i had learned was that Fletcher Christian's relatives, when they heard about the mutiny, went on a campaign to dis-credit William Bligh, and possibly reduce the dis-honor to Fletcher Christian, in a sea-faring society that did not condone mutiny in any form. It is probably this dis-credit campaign that gave this story it's life & staying power, as Hollywood keeps re-visiting it.

William Bligh may not have been lined up for Dale Carnegie awards, but he was a sailor supreme - clearly demonstrated by the fact that he sailed his crew to safety in a small open, way-overloaded vessel that Fletcher Christian put him & most of the other non-mutineers in.

Posted in memorial to those who did not survive the hurricane event & the ship.

Click 'til Large! . . . . . . . . . . . .(or press 'L' key). . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ### .


Prisvindende streamingtjeneste af docs i fuld længde til historiefolk, kongelige seere, biografinteresserede og entusiaster i forstærker-tog. Besøg britishpathe.tv British Path & eacute repræsenterer nu Reuters historiske samling, som indeholder mere end 136.000 genstande fra 1910 til 1984. Start med at udforske!

CREW

Life on Board

Warrior was different from the sailing warships of the previous four centuries - like Mary Rose and Victory - in having one long stable gun deck rather than several stacked gun decks. Six hundred men lived here, divided into 34 messes, each with up to 18 men squashed into the space between two guns. They crammed around the simple mess table at mealtimes and at night slung their hammocks above. They were allowed small ditty bags or boxes containing day-to-day possessions. Despite the sometimes rigorous conditions, off-watch the crews' leisure time was spent singing, talking, playing cards, sewing and writing letters home. Some had musical instruments others had pets such as parrots.

The contrast between the social life of the crew and officers is evident. The Captain's cabin, with its rich décor and fine furniture, was very like the Victorian drawing room. Officers had individual cabins, which they adorned with personal possessions such as fishing rods, books and photographs. The Wardroom table is still magnificently set for formal dinner, gleaming with silver, crystal and embossed fine bone china.

The Admiralty classification of ships was regulated by armament and Warrior, officially a third-rate frigate, would normally carry a crew of 300. However, when she set sail on her first commission, Warrior had a crew of approximately 700.

The ship herself may have been revolutionary, but the day to day lives of her crew differed little from service in the great wooden warships. Manpower was still essential.

To many on board it must have seemed, as it did to those at home, that Warrior's career would go on forever.

Old Warriors - If you are related to someone who served in the ship during her history we would be grateful if you could offer any information for our growing Genealogical Archive. Get in touch - [email protected]

Betjente

You can trace today's Naval command system back to Warrior and beyond.

The Captain was the ship's undisputed ruler, answerable to the Admiralty for everybody and everything on board.

His comfortable quarters were at the aft end of the main deck. They comprised day and sleeping cabins. He also had private heads (toilet), a personal steward who worked from a nearby pantry. Beyond his quarters were the rudder yoke and propeller well.

Number two was the Commander, who was responsible for the ship's day to day routines, fighting capability and general appearance. He was also Wardroom Mess President. His quarters were next to the Captain's as were those of the Master. His title was a throwback to when merchant ships and their masters were commandeered for naval use.

The Captain could only enter the wardroom by invitation of the other officers. The wardroom was their mess. It was on the lower deck, with their 14 cabins, 6 feet by 10 feet, arranged around a central dining and leisure area.

With the Royal Navy's new professional status some of the younger wardroom members would have graduated from the officer training school on Illustrious or later Britannia.

The ship's chaplain was also the schoolmaster, teaching the ordinary crew and the junior ranks comprising 20 to 30 midshipmen and sub-lieutenants. These very young officers led a less formal life in the gunroom - their lower deck mess - where the chief gunner was in charge of the midshipmen. They slept in hammocks.

Also sharing the lower deck were the engineers, the boatswain, gunner, shipwright (carpenter) and chief petty officers, all of whom had cabins and messes.

Men

If you wanted to serve on board Warrior, you needed brawn rather than brain. 600 of the 700 men aboard had tough physical jobs. The ship herself may have been revolutionary, but the day to day lives of her crew differed little from service in the great wooden warships.

The average sailor manned the guns, hoisted the sails, turned capstans, hauled on ropes, lifted and lowered boats, pulled on oars and cranked the massive pumps that moved water around the ship. "Knowing the ropes" was more than an idle phrase to the men who worked 180 feet up in the rigging day and night.

A large number of the crew helped raise the ship's four anchors located at the bow and stern. Each weighed 5.6 tons, the heaviest ever in maritime history to be operated manually. Over 100 men hauled one anchor up at a time through linked capstans with its chain fed into cable lockers amidships to keep the ship balanced.

The crew slept in hammocks slung above the guns, and lived and ate in messes between the guns. The lot of the Jack Tar was improving. Press gangs had been abolished. Instead, seamen would be recruited for a fixed period and could then re - enlist or take a pension.

Uniform & Pay

Uniforms had been introduced in 1859, the year before Warrior's launch. The dress depended on the job and the time of day or week. The normal outfits comprised dark blue jumpers and white trousers. All white outfits were worn for drills.

Stokers wore white suits of duck - a material similar to canvas, all the time and on Sundays, hats - black in winter and white in summer - were compulsory except in wet weather.

Clothes were issued monthly from the Paymaster and the cost of the uniform deducted from the seaman's wages. Hat ribbons were offered at a cost of 1 shilling each, a day's wages to a second class ordinary seaman. The Paymaster was a key figure on the ship. He controlled the victualling, clothes and pay from his lower deck office.

Pay parade was monthly and formal. Off-watch seamen reported to the pay office and, at the command, a seaman took off his hat so that his wages could be put in it. Pay levels ranged from the Captain's £1 a day to the sixpence (2.5p) paid to a Boy Second Class.


6 Replies to &ldquoJames Rooke’s Memoirs&rdquo

I am trying to research my family tree and my mother has a picture of a cottage which she was told was at the top of Southwick green but this relative is listed as Shepherd of Southwick? trying to locate where this would have stood
Hilsen
Chris

What period within ten to twenty years are you looking at Chris – if you can let us see a photo of the cottage it should be fairly easy for us to identify.

Thank you for replying Roger, I will see if I can scan and attach, the family member I am trying to trace is a Richard Pettet. I have him listed in the 1841 census listed under the location as just Kingston and the head name being William Gorringe but no house number or street name? He is listed as Ag Lab, I assume agricultural labourer ?? Hi is then listed 1861, married and address 1 North Place and is shown as Shepherd, so he had learned a trade which is good. The next apperance is in 1871 census and is Long Barn farmhouse cottage and still listed as Shepherd. Following this it is 1881 census and the loaction is listed as Hill Barn, possibly the same as 1871? In additon to this 1 son is listed as heardsman and 1 is listed as Carter? Then in 1881 listed as The Green thatched cottage(possibly this is the property) but the trade has changed, it difficult to read but looks like streetman in Ag cattle ??
your help is much appreciated

The &lsquoreply&rsquo facility doesn&rsquot seem to be working Chris so I&rsquom having to start a new message to answer yours.
I&rsquove sent you my e-mail address so you can send the photo to us for identification. I&rsquove looked up the census returns and clearly Richard Pettet was employed by William Gorringe at Kingston House farm. His various occupations, mainly agricultural, were not unusual as many had to turn their hand to whatever work was available. He seems though to have been mainly a shepherd, quite a responsibilty as the shepherd was one of the most important people on a farm in those days and their knowledge and opinion was highly valued by the farm owner, particularly one on such a large farm as Gorringe&rsquos.
I see Richard married Louisa Potter in 1858.

Long Barn was/is the barn at Kingston House farm &ndash I&rsquove attached a photo of it in my next e-mail to you. Hill Barn is likely to have been Southwick Hill Barn, north Southwick, in the days when it was still countryside and a more obvious and convenient residence for a shepherd &ndash Gorringe owned it and all the land there. The 1845 Tithe and other maps are included so you will have more of an idea where it was. This just leaves the cottage to identify when you are able to send it.

My 4 x great grandfather was William Pennington Gorringe, I descend from his daughter Betsy Ann and wife Charlotte Goldsmith. It’s really lovely to hear from Hugh’s wife Louisa Rooke talking about him. Thanks for this.


The Sinking of HMS Goliat 13th May 1915

At the start of World War I the major navies had significant numbers of pre-dreadnought battleships which, though in many cases only eight or ten years old, had been rendered wholly obsolete by the commissioning of HMS Dreadnought in 1905. This, the first turbine-driven, all-big gun, battleship, mounted ten 12” guns, compared with the almost universal armament of four 12-inch guns for the average pre-dreadnought, and set the model for all subsequent capital ships. By the outbreak of war in 1914 large numbers of “dreadnoughts” – the name had already come to symbolise a type – were in service in the larger navies. Putting obsolete pre-dreadnoughts into a battle-line which would have to face much more powerfully-armed dreadnoughts was likely to be little short of suicidal.

HMS Canopus – typical British pre-dreadnought, sister of HMS Goliath

In 1914 the Royal Navy still has 39 pre-dreadnoughts while the French Navy had 26 (including several more heavily-armed “semi-dreadnoughts”). It was recognised that though they were unsuited to battle-fleet service they might still prove of value in secondary duties such as shore bombardment. In such cases low speed would be less of a concern and each ship would be capable of bringing four 12” weapons into play, plus large numbers of lower-calibre weapons.

It was the availability of large numbers of such pre-dreadnoughts that contributed to the decision to attempt forcing a passage through the Turkish-held Dardanelles Strait in 1915. Success in establishing a sea-route to the Russian Black Sea coast would allow supply of weapons and munitions to often-underequipped Russian land forces – and indeed some have argued that had this been achieved Russia might not have collapsed as it did in 1916/17 and that the Bolshevik Revolution might not have occurred or have been successful if it still did. There also appears to have been some thinking that, in view of the large number of obsolete pre-dreadnoughts available, significant losses could be tolerated to achieve success. This argument ignored the fact that these ships carried large crews, and that the sinking of any one would mean a devastatingly high – and unacceptable – death-tolls.

Det Bouvet in French peacetime livery, black hull, light grey upperworks

The purely naval attempt to force the Dardanelles on 18th March 1915 saw no less than sixteen British and French pre-dreadnoughts, plus the new 15” dreadnought Dronning Elizabeth and the lightly armoured battle-cruiser Ufleksibel advance up a strait that narrowed from four miles to one in some ten miles. Resultatet var en katastrofe. Under fire from Turkish shore-batteries, and heading into upswept minefields, two British pre-dreadnoughts (Ocean og Irresistible) and one French one (Bouvet) were lost in little more than an hour. Det Ufleksibel – which should not have been there, as speed rather than armour was intended as her protection – survived after hitting a mine. The loss of the Bouvet was particularly spectacular, blowing up and sinking in less than two minutes and taking 660 men with her. The impracticability of the scheme was finally realised and the massive naval force was withdrawn. The decision was now taken to land troops to capture the Gallipoli Peninsula that flanked the Dardanelles and poorly-planned and inadequately-supplied landings were made at several points on April 25th 1916. None of the forces landed reached their first-day objectives. The Turks managed to hold, to flood in reinforcements and to establish a trench-deadlock no less intractable than that on the Western Front. The eight-month agony of the Gallipoli campaign had begun, ending only with full evacuation of Allied forces in early 1916.

Shore bombardment by HMS Cornwallis (Australian War Museum Photograph AWM H10388)

The role of the pre-dreadnoughts after the failure of March 18th was to be shore-bombardment in support of the landings, and thereafter of the forces onshore. Over-optimistic assumptions were made about the ability of naval guns to take-out pin-point targets – which was what the troops onshore needed – and the results were wholly incommensurate with the risks run by the ships involved. Three further British pre-dreadnoughts were to be lost before the decision was taken to withdraw them from the beaches. The ability of the enemy to strike back with either surface or submarine forces was wholly under-estimated, and indeed the arrival of a German U-Boat, the U-21, came as a very unpleasant surprise. HMS Triumf og HMS Majestætisk were to fall victims to her torpedoes on May 25th and May 27th respectively. (See separate article about U-21).

The first of the losses off the Gallipoli beaches was however due to surface attack. Ever since the automotive torpedo had come into service in the late 1870s the possibility of torpedo-craft penetrating anchorages under cover of night was recognised as a major threat. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 had indeed begun with exactly such an attack by the Japanese even before war was declared. It is therefore surprising that lack of alertness – perhaps even complacency – may have characterised the sinking of the pre-dreadnought HMS Goliat in the early hours of May 13th 1915.

HMS Goliat

Of the Canopus class, the Goliat was a typical pre-dreadnought. Completed in 1900, of 13,000 tons and 430-feet long, she carried four 12-inch guns, twelve 6-inch and a large number of smaller weapons. She had served off the East African coast earlier in the war but was recalled to participate in the attempt on the Dardanelles. Her crew was over 700. She had provided fire-support for the landings on April 25th and continued to do so thereafter, sustaining light damage from Turkish shore batteries. On the night of 12th-13th May she was anchored in Morto Bay, close to Cape Helles, the southern tip of the Gallipoli Peninsula, in company with a similar vessel HMS Cornwallis. Five destroyers had been assigned to protect them and visibility was low due to fog.

Muavenet-i Milliye on Turkish postcard

Following a period of stagnation, under-investment and a lack-lustre performance in the Balkan Wars 1912-13 (see separate article on Battle of Elli) the Turkish Navy was in the process of re-equipping in 1914. Britain’s refusal to deliver two dreadnoughts constructed in British yards and already paid for (and taken into British service as HMS Agincourt og HMS Erin) was a contributing factor in Turkey entering WW1 on the German side. Delivery had been taken of other new vessels however, most notably four modern torpedo-boats built by Germany’s Schichau-Werft company . These had originally been ordered for the Imperial German Navy but in 1910 they were sold, before completion, to Turkey. They were impressive vessels, designed only for one purpose, that of attack. Of 765 tons and 243-feet long, their two turbines delivering 17,700 HP, and 26 knots, they carried three 18-inch torpedo tubes as well as two 3-inch and two 2.25-inch guns. It was one of these vessels, the Muâvenet-i Millîye (National Support) that was to be the Goliath’s nemesis.

Ohlay (Right) & Firle (left)

Selvom Muâvenet-i Millîye was commanded by Senior Lieutenant Ahmet Saffet Ohkay, a German officer, Lieutenant Rudolph Firle, one of many seconded to the Turkish Navy, was assigned to the vessel to give specialist advice on torpedo attack. Taking advantage of darkness and fog patches the torpedo boat passed through the Turkish minefields in early evening and then anchored under cover of the Turkish-held Gallipoli shore about seven miles north-east of the anchored pre-dreadnoughts. She remained there until shortly after midnight and in the meantime, around 23.30, the searchlights sweeping the anchorage from the British ships were switched off. (Why this was done is one of the mysteries of the entire operation).
Det Muâvenet-i-Millîye now crept down along the shore and the Allied destroyers failed to detect her. Only at 0100 hrs were two of these destroyers, HMS Beagle og HMS Bulldog, sighted – but astern – and Goliat was spotted directly ahead. The Turkish vessel’s advance was now noticed and Goliath signalled a request for the night’s password. Det var for sent. Det Muâvenet-i-Millîye was in torpedo-range and she launched three torpedoes. They proved to be equally spaced along the pre-dreadnought’s length – one hit below the bridge, a second below the funnels and the third near the stern. Det Goliat capsized and sank almost immediately, so quickly in fact that 570 of her crew of more than 700 were lost, including the captain. The darkness and the fast current running – up to three knots – hampered rescue efforts significantly.

Turkish painting of the attack by Diyarbakirli Tahsin (Turkish Naval Museum, Istanbul)

In the confusion following the attack the Muâvenet-i-Millîye escaped back safely up the Dardanelles. She returned to a hero’s welcome in Istanbul, with illuminations along the Bosporus in honour of her and her crew, and with the award of medals and decorations. Perhaps the best tribute paid to her and her crew came from General Sir Ian Hamilton, the British Army commander at Gallipoli, who wrote in his diary – “The Turks deserve a medal.”

Triumphant torpedo-crew: Firle is second from right in front of tube

Det Goliath’s loss was to have serious consequences within the British Government, leading in turn to the immediate resignation of the First Sea Lord Admiral Fisher (who had conceived the Dreadnought and presided over the Royal Navy’s modernisation) and, shortly later, that of the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. Two more pre-dreadnoughts, Triumf og Majestætisk, were to be sunk in the next fortnight, triggering the decision to withdraw all heavy units. The long, painful journey to final defeat and evacuation was now well advanced.

And the Muavenet-i -Milliyet? She was to have an inglorious post-war career as an accommodation hulk until she was scrapped in 1953.


We Give You: Aircraft Carrier HMS Prince Of Wales In All Her Glory

This is the Royal Navy’s second Queen-Elizabeth class aircraft carrier as she gets ready for front-line duties around the world – one of the most powerful surface warships ever constructed in the United Kingdom.

Like her sister ship, HMS Queen Elizabeth, the size of HMSPWLS is awe-inspiring – she can embark 36 F-35B fast jets and four Merlin Helicopters.

Portsmouth Naval Base has been given an upgrade ready for the warship’s arrival which includes strengthening and modernising the port’s 1990’s Victory Jetty at a cost of £30 million.

The ship’s namesake, Charles, Prince of Wales, unveiled the aircraft carrier to the public in September 2019 at a naming ceremony which he attended with his wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall.

HMS Prince Of Wales: Aircraft Carrier Arrives In Portsmouth For First Time

All The Gen About HMS Prince Of Wales

HMS Prince Of Wales cost £3 billion to design and build by the Aircraft Carrier Alliance (ACA) - a integrated team formed from Babcock, BAE Systems, Thales UK and the Ministry of Defence, which acts as both partner and client. The team is responsible for delivering the Queen Elizabeth class ships to time and cost.

Tests and Trials

The aircraft carrier was put through sea trials in October 2019 in the Moray Firth and the North Sea which included tests of its long-range radar – tracking two Typhoon jets that were flown out of RAF Lossiemouth.

The second of the QE Class Aircraft carriers has been undertaking the sea trials since she left Rosyth.

Her 700 plus crew are supplemented with contractors, and support staff for the trials.

The carrier will increase the UK’s defence options to maintain carrier strike capability and means that one of the warships could be in maintenance with the other in any maritime operation.

The addition of HMS Prince Of Wales to the Royal Navy fleet is not only significant as the UK’s second aircraft carrier – it also enables the full-time employment of the rest of the Royal Navy’s and wider defence investment in capabilities.

The ship’s bridge team will have undertaken significant simulator training at HMS Collingwood and many of HMS Prince Of Wales’ crew have spent time on HMS Queen Elizabeth in order to prepare for bringing the second carrier alongside in Portsmouth.

The trials have a number of achievements so far including the first helicopter landing – a Merlin Mk2 of 820 Naval Air Squadron, the first test of engines at full power, reaching a top speed of more than 25 knots, and the first test of the long-range radar.

The warship has also made her first port visit to take on supplies, fuel and stores, in Invergordon, like her sister ship HMS Queen Elizabeth before her.

HMS Queen Elizabeth - In All Her Glory

HMS Prince Of Wales

HMS Prince Of Wales, like her sister warship HMS Queen Elizabeth, is 280 metres long – about the length of two-and-a-half football pitches and longer than the length of the Houses of Parliament.

Her deck is 70 metres wide – about the width of the Pyramid main stage at Glastonbury Festival which could sit comfortably across the deck area of the ship.

Forskydning

65,000 tonnes - a ship’s weight is based on the amount of water its hull displaces at varying loads.

HMS Prince Of Wales has the latest generation of the Phalanx close-in weapon system.

The Phalanx gun system is designed as an anti-aircraft and anti-missile defence and is radar controlled, meaning it automatically detects, tracks and engages incoming threats and features a 20mm M61A1cannon with a rate of fire of up to 4,500 shots per minute.

She is also equipped with a host of small-calibre guns and the first tests of these have already been carried out by the crew. These are the ship’s last line of defence against small fast craft, such as speedboats or jetskis.

Should an enemy vessel evade the warship’s powerful outer layer of the carrier’s defence, which include frigate destroyers, automated guns and decoys, the responsibility for protecting the ship falls to the marksmanship of the crew’s gunnery team.

HMS Prince Of Wales has two Rolls-Royce Marine Trent MT30 36 MW (48,000 hp) gas turbine engines and four Wärtsilä 38 marine diesel engines (4 × 16V38 11.6 MW or 15,600 hp).

Rolls-Royce pioneered the use of aero-derivative gas turbines in marine propulsion, mainly for use in naval vessels and its MT30 gas turbines powering both HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Queen Elizabeth are the most powerful gas turbine engines in operation in the world.

These engines deliver enough power to run about a thousand family cars, with enough energy to power a town of 25,000 people.

The MT30 first entered service to power the US Navy’s first littoral combat ship, USS Freedom, in 2008.

The ship's power generator is a low voltage electrical power distribution system which generates enough energy to power more than five thousand family homes and about 300,000 kettles.

Collectively, the diesel generators produce about 40 per cent of the total power for the carrier – with the Rolls-Royce MT30 main engines generating the rest.

The ship’s steering gear integrates two steering gear rotary vane actuators (a form of mechanics for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, such as by opening a valve using hydraulic power).

Operationally, the Rolls-Royce rotary vane design ensures full torque is available at all rudder angles – with two independent rudders to manoeuvre the carrier.

The propellers on HMS Prince of Wales each deliver around 50,000 horsepower.

Rolls-Royce, which manufactured them at its facility in Sweden, says they are the highest power propeller ever produced by the company.

Each of the propellers is made from nickel aluminium bronze, 7m in diameter and weighs 33 tonnes.

Her anchors were built in Norfolk and are about three metres in height, weighing 12,837 and 12,456 kilograms.

This is just one component of the ship, which was constructed across six shipyards around the country with more than 200 British companies supplying vital parts.

Crew And Facilities

The ship’s company is 700 personnel – plus contractors, and support staff during trials – each one of whom has to be catered for as they live at sea, during their duties and downtime.

This will increase to about 1,600 once aircraft are on board.

The warship’s chefs serve up to 4,800 meals every day and she holds up to 45 days’ worth of food in her stores.

There are four galleys and four large dining areas on board.

The food served up in those meals includes 72kgs each of meat and fruit, 200 litres of milk, 400 baguettes, 40 watermelons and 100 litres of soup.

The pantries, fridges and freezers of the carrier are able to hold 12,000 tins of baked beans, enough to fill 38 bath tubs, and 66,000 sausages, which would stretch four miles if laid end-to-end. The ship’s company gets through that amount at a rate of more than 550ft per day – the height of Portsmouth’s Spinnaker Tower.

She also stores 28,800 rashers of bacon – which weighs about the same as a Porsche Panamera supercar.

The ship boasts a number of training areas and cardio gym which includes an area with spinning bikes, plus a weights room and a boxing training facility.

For physical health and mental, spiritual and religious well-being, she also has a medical centre and a chapel.

Law And Order

The Royal Navy Police Department will have service officers on board and they manage a custody area for times when someone aboard needs to be detained.

She is able to carry 36 F35B Lightning II Jets, and up to 40 helicopters and this could include 12 Chinook or Merlin helicopters and eight Apache attack helicopters, for example.

Fast Jets And Capabilities

Like her sister aircraft carrier Big Lizzie, HMS Prince Of Wales is expected to embark F35B fast jets as the obvious choice for a carrier strike force but the Crowsnest Maritime surveillance variant of the Merlin Helicopter and the new support ships RFA Tidespring class are expected to be called upon more with the second carrier.

The F35B trials on Queen Elizabeth have been successful with the highlight being the completion of rolling landings which significantly increases the landing weight of the F35 returning to the ship, meaning she can return with munitions and fuel which previously would have been jettisoned into the sea at great economic and ecological cost.

Trials of HMS Prince of Wales have a number of achievements so far including the first helicopter landing – a Merlin Mk2 of 820 Naval Air Squadron, the first test of engines at full power, reaching a top speed of more than 25 knots, and the first test of the long-range radar.

Kommandør

All of the above is under the watchful command of HMS Prince of Wales' commanding officer Captain Darren Houston.

Captain Houston first joined HMS Queen Elizabeth in January 2016 as The Commander, helping to guide the ship through contractor sea trials and her first deployment to the United States, where trials of the F35B landing and takeoffs were carried out.


Se videoen: Selected Originals - HMS Glory In Action 1953 (Juni 2022).


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