Historie Podcasts

Dag 167 5. juli 2011 - Historie

Dag 167 5. juli 2011 - Historie

09:45 PRÆSIDENTEN modtager præsidentens daglige briefing
Oval kontor


10:15 MØDE PRÆSIDENTEN med seniorrådgivere
Oval kontor


11:30 PRÆSIDENTEN og VICEPRESIDENTEN mødes med ambassadør Crocker og generalløjtnant Allen
Oval kontor

16:40 PRÆSIDENTEN kom med korte bemærkninger om status for bestræbelserne på at finde en afbalanceret tilgang til reduktion af underskud


17.00 præsidenten og vicepræsidenten mødes med forsvarsminister Panetta


Historiske begivenheder

3,8-4 millioner f.Kr.? Første tobenede menneske i Etiopien
500.000 fvt? Peking -mand, Java -mand
Dinosaurer levede i den mesozoiske æra
35.000 øvre paleolitiske periode, hvor de første mennesker antages at ankomme til Nordamerika og Asien.
15.000 vægmalerier lavet i huler i Lascaux, Frankrig og Altamira, Spanien.
Nephilim (1 Mosebog 6: 4-6)

5762 - skabelsesåret ifølge Alan D. Corré.
5176 (+/- 26) - skabelsesåret som anslået af Gerald E. Aardsma
[23. oktober 4004] er oprettelsesdatoen ifølge & quotAnnals of the World & quot (1600 sider på latin) af irsk ærkebiskop James Ussher (1581-1656)

Ingen dato? Jordens måne skabt, da planeten Rahab, der ligger mellem Mars og Jupiter, ødelægges i Asteroidebæltet? (Job 26: 11-14, Salme 89: 9-14, Esajas 51: 9-16)
? [4043] Adam skabt af Gud (1 Mos 2)
? [4003] Adam og Eva blev bortvist fra Edens have (1. generation)
Ingen dato Enok oversat (midtvejs mellem Adam og Abraham)

Tidlig bibelhistorie

1. januar 4712 f.Kr. - Første julianske dato på den gregorianske kalender.
3913 Seth født da Adam var 130 år gammel (1 Mos 5: 3)
3808 Enosh født da Seth var 105 (1 Mos 5: 6)
7. oktober 3761 f.Kr., Hebraisk (månekalender) starter på en nymåne (Molad) den 1. Tishrei (nytår).

3520 (+/- 21) [Usher 2348] Methuselah dør 969 år gammel (1Mo 7:27), hans død skal bringe det etårige oversvømmelse af Noah på 17. nisan. Dette begynder 427-årig dispensation af menneskelig regering.
Post-diluviansk tid:

3167 Abram (far til mange) fra Ur, Assyria Mesopotamien (nutidens Irak) født (1Mo 11: 26-32 Gen 12: 4 Apostelgerninger 7: 4)

3114 epoken (begyndelsen) af mayakalenderen (den 11. august)
3100 Første krig registreret (i egyptiske hieroglyfer) om Farao Narmer & quotMenes the Fighter & quot, der forener Øvre og Nedre Egypten.

? Chaldæernes job forlader Irak.

3092 (+/- 16) [1630] Gud kalder Abraham til at forlade Ur, bosætte sig et stykke tid i Haran, Egypten, derefter i Kanaan.
3067 Issac født (1Mo 25:26)
? Ismael kastet ud (1Mo 21: 8-10)
? Issac (1. Mosebog 26: 17-25) hustru Rebecca fra Irak (Første Mosebog 24: 4,10)
? Semitisk Sodom og Gomorra blev ødelagt
3007 Jacob (= ved kraft) født (1Mo 47: 9) (1Mo 28: 10-12, 32 & 35: 1-7)
2916 Joseph født (1Mo 41:46)

BEMÆRK: Kronologien for bestemte datoer har været genstand for megen debat blandt forskellige forskere gennem årene.

Astronomen Barry Setterfield fra Australien teoretiserer, at fordi lysets hastighed er faldende geometrisk, kunne millioner af år være gået i vores nuværende opfattelse af tid. Bibelen taler om dette:

Men elskede, vær ikke uvidende om denne ene ting, at en dag er hos Herren som tusind år og tusind år som en dag "— Salme 90: 4 (NKJ) & amp רnd Peter 3: 8 ( NKJ)

Biskop Usser definerede en tidslinje baseret på spor i Bibelen.

Martin Ansteys 1913 & quotRomance of Bible Chronology & quot.

Edwin R. Thiele, i sin The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (Academie Books, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1983), fjernede yderligere kronologien i den monarkiske periode.

Stand-offet mellem bibelske og arkæologiske opdagelser i Egypten og andre lande omkring Isreal blev løst i 1990 af fysiker Gerald E. Aardsma i En ny tilgang til kronologien i bibelsk historie fra Abraham til Samuel Det konkluderer, at & quot480 år & quot i (1 Kong 6: 1) modsiger Apostlenes Gerninger 13: 19-20 og arkealogiske optegnelser på grund af en tidlig (sjælden, homeoarkton) kopi fejl på & quot1480 & quot år. (Ligner et problem med oversættelsen af ​​Samuel 13: 1)

Mosaik Lovens alder

Casuistisk (retspraksis

United ogDelt opRiger

Inter-Testamente Gange

Tidspunkt for Kristus

er placeret på det hellige sted.
661 Muawiya overtager som en sunnimuslimsk kalif, efter at Ali er blevet myrdet, begyndende på Ummayad dynasti, der avancerede til Afrika.


665 muslimer erobrer araber i slaget ved Basra.

664 Synode i Whitby - Romersk kirkemyndighed (baseret på afstamning fra Skt. Peter) valgt frem for joniske keltiske traditioner (til påske) af Northumbrian King Oswy.
670 Silla Kingdom besejrer andre kongeriger i Korea.
687-714 Pepin II regler efter forening af frankerne.
688-691 Klippekuppel bygget i Jerusalems Tempelbjerge af kalif Abd al-Malik (9. kalifat 685-705), der også præger rent muslimske mønter og erklærer arabisk som officielt sprog.

700 masoritter deler sig Tanache (Det Gamle Testamente) i kapitler
711-715 muslimer erobrer Spanien
726 Den byzantinske kejser Leo III erklærer sig selv også som pave i den østlige kirkeorden efter at have ignoreret klager fra icondule romerske pave Gregor II over ikonoklaster, der ødelagde billedet af Kristus ved porten til Konstantinopel (nutidens Istanbul, Tyrkiet).
732 muslimer når deres ekspansionsgrænse, når de besejres af Charles Martel (“ The Hammer ”) og hans hær af franske franker i Slaget ved Toursved Loire -floden.
750 Abbasiderne ledet af al Abbas får kontrol over det muslimske imperium. Abu Jafar al Mansur flytter muslimsk hovedstad til Bagdad i Mesopotamien og begynder en gylden periode, da al Khwarizmi opfinder algebra (al jabr).
756 Efter at have flygtet genforener Abbasid -general Abdullah Umayyad -regeringen i Spanien Abd al Rahman begynder at bygge Den Store Moske og biblioteker i Cordoba, Spanien.
768 germansk leder Karl den Store navngivet kejser for det tidligere vestromerske imperium.
787 Andet råd i Nicea (Syvende økumeniske råd)
800 Karl den Store kronet til kejser af den romerske pave i Aachen.
16. juli 869 Stor filoksk skisme af romersk og byzantinsk kirke (1054?)
844 Nederlaget for Picts forener Skotland.

500-1500 Middelalderhistorie

I Dalmatien (Jugoslavien) bruger kroater romersk alfabet, serbere, der er loyale over for den østlige Konstantinopel kirke, bruger kyrillisk alfabet opfundet af missionærbrødrene Cyril og Methodius.
1008-1020 Tale om Genji skrevet i Japan
Inkvisitioner af pave Innocent.
1044 Krudt opfundet i Kina.
1053 vestlige kirke insisterer på cølibatet i dets højere præster. 50 år senere ekskommuniserer kirken alle gifte præster.
1054 Ortodoks østlig kirke og romersk katolsk kirke adskiller sig efter at have ekskommuniseret hinanden i en Stort skisma.
1055 Seljuk -tyrkere fra Centralasien erobrer Bagdad.
1066 franskmænd under Vilhelm Erobreren slog det saksiske England i slaget ved Hastings ved Norman, England
1071 Byzantinsk æra, da muslimer besejrede islamiske osmannere i Anatolien (nu Vest -Tyrkiet).
1085 spanske Alfonso VI indtager den muslimske by Toledo.
1086 Engelsk Doomsday Book udgivet.
1095 Den romerske pave Urban II opfordrer til et helligt korstog for at beskytte kristne mod muslimer på pilgrimsrejser til Jerusalem, og hjælpe Italien med at fange handel gennem Constatinopole Byzytine (græsk -ortodokse) kirkelige territorier. Andre årsager til korstogene
1096 De første korstog begynder.
15. juli kom 1099 korsfarere ind i Jerusalem.
1104 Korsfarere tager Acre i Isreal fra muslimer der dervisivt kaldes saracen (betyder nogenlunde "østlændinge").
1169 Muslimske Saladin bliver konge af Kairo, Egypten.
1170 Thomas Becket (født 1162), ærkebiskop af Canterbury, myrdes for at stå op mod den engelske konge.

1187 Efter at have lokket korsfarere til en vandløs tallerken i juli og decimeret dem, erobrer Saladin (betyder & trosretter & quot) Jerusalem fra korsfarere ledet af konsort Guy de Lusignan (efter at han blev bortvist af hertugen af ​​Aquitane, der senere blev Richard I).
1187 Middelalderlige riddere genopretter Jerusalem under 2. korstog.
1189 jøder massakreret i England under kroning af Richard I.
1191 Zen -buddhismen introduceret til Japan af den kinesiske munk Eisai.
1204 Konstantinopel blev fyret af korsfarere under det 4. korstog.
1206-1227 Genghis Khan etablerer Det mongolske imperium
15. juni kl. 1215 Magna Carter of Liberty underskrevet af kong John for at afværge engelsk barons krig. *
(1182-1226) Frans af Assisi etablerer den francisciske orden.
1228 Stephen Langston opdeler Det Nye Testamentes bibel i kapitler.
(1225-1274) Thomas Aquinas 'skolastik adskiller nåde fra natur
1234 Sun Diata grundlægger Mali -imperiet i Vestafrika.
1235 Mali besejrer Ghana for at blive stormagten i Vestafrika.
1236 Cordoba, Spanien falder til de kristne styrker og efterlader berberne i Granada.
Marco Polo (1254-1324) i en alder af 16 rejser fra Venedig, Italien til Kina.
10. februar 1258 Abbasid-Seljuk Baghdad (og dets biblioteker) falder til kavaleri fra Yuan-dynastiet (1271-1368) (tartarer) under kommando af nomadiske mongoler Kublai Khan (1215-1294), barnebarn af Djengis Khan. Papirvaluta først indført.
1275-1292 Marco Polo i Kina
1281 Første mongolske invasion af Japan optøet af Kamikaze (guddommelige/gud-vind) tyfoner
1291 korstog slutter efter 8 krige.

1304-1374 Den første "humanist", Francesco Petrarca, født til at blive digter og "renæssancens far"
1345 Black Plague udsletter 30% -50% af Europa
(1347-1380) Den dominikanske nonne Catherine of Siena udfører mirakler.
1356 koreanere vælter mongoler
(1329-1384) John Wycliffe oversætter latinsk bibel til engelsk og konverterer England
Timur den halte (1369-1405)
1368-1408 Yoshimitsu er tredje Shogun i Japan
1368-1611 Ming (“brilliant ”) dynasti i Kina.
6. juli 1415 bohemske præst John Hus, syngende, brænder for kætteri i Prag.
1453 Tyrkiske osmanniske Mehmet II erobrer Constanopole og afslutter det byzantinske imperium.
1467-1477 Onin War forbrænder alt i Japan

1517-1648 Renæssance/ Reformation

1512 færdiggør Michelangelo fresker i Det Sixtinske Kapel i Vatikanpaladset i pave Julius II (1443-1513), der regerede fra 1503 til 1513.
1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa krydser Panama Isthmus for at opdage Stillehavet.
1516 udgav Desiderium Erasmus af Holland først det græske nye testamente.
1517 osmanniske Selim I erobrer Jerusalem
31. oktober 1517 Munken Martin Luther (1483-1546) starter den protestantiske reformation med at udgive sine 95 teser fra Wittenberg, Tyskland.
1519 forlader Ferdinand Magellan Spanien for at tage den første søfart rundt i verden.
1525 Under ledelse af studerende fra Urich Zwingli i Zürich bryder brødre (kaldet "anabaptister" for deres insisteren på voksen frem for barnedåb) fra de statskontrollerede kirker i Tyskland og Holland. Dem, der følger en af ​​deres ledere, Menno Simons (1496-1561), kaldet "Mennonitter".
1526 erobrer Babur Delhi, Indien Slaget ved Panipat, der etablerer Mughal -imperiet.
1527 Sack of Rome af kejserlige tropper 1534 Henry VIII's Supermacy Act bryder England fra pavelig overherredømme ved at erklære kongen af ​​England for at være chef for Church of England.
1535 Miles Coverdale afslutter den første komplette, trykte bibel på engelsk.
1536 John Calvin (1509-1504) skriver Institutes of The Christian Religion
1534 oversætter Martin Luther hele bibelen til tysk.
1536 William Tyndale (f 1490) henrettet og brændt i Vilvorde, Belgien for at oversætte Bibelen i Det Nye Testamente til engelsk (fra græske manuskripter). Hans sidste ord: "Herre! Åbn kongen af ​​Englands øjne."
1537 kong Henry VIII af England autoriserer "Matthew's Bible" og tillader, at den kan sælges og læses.
1539 Copernicus (1473-1543) i Polen udgiver (efter 30 år) De Revolutionibus (af Ptolemiac -teorien fra egyptiske Claudius Ptolemaios omkring 150 e.Kr.) en teori om, at Jorden ikke er universets centrum!
1538-41 sultanen Suleiman den Storslåede indtager Jerusalem.
1545 Det første råd i Trent (nær Salzburg), indkaldt under pave Paul III, definerede katolske kontrareformationsdoktriner, herunder paven som "vikar" for Kristus på jorden.
1549, to år efter Henry VIIIs død, Thomas Cranmer, inden han blev brændt som kætter i 1556, definerer anglikansk teologi (såsom "transubstansiering") ved at udgive den første Book of Common Prayer, der blev brugt i engelske gudstjenester.
1551 Robert Stephens Estienne fra Frankrig deler vers fra Det Nye Testamente i Bibelen.
1555 Fred i Augsberg nået af katolske Karl V med lutheranere.
1557 Portugiser etablerer bosættelse i Macao, Kina
1565, på Sankt Augustins Dag, ankom Pedro Menendez de Aviles for at etablere Amerikas første by på Floridas Atlanterhavskyst.
1557 første indeks over forbudte bøger officielt udstedt under den katolske pave Paul IV
1556-1605 Mughal Empire blomstrer i Indien under Akbar (den Store).
1571 Slaget ved Lepanto i Grækenland ender med tyrkisk sejrkraft i Middelhavet.
4-15. Oktober 1582 Baseret på et udvalg under ledelse af Napoli-astronomen Aloysius Lilius udsteder pave Gregor XIII tyr & quotInter Gravissimus & quot at implementere Gregoriansk kalender, fastsættelse af forårsjævndøgn den 21. marts hvert år og tage 10 dage ud af den julianske kalender.
1588 Spansk Armada på 130 skibe besejret af storme og den britiske flåde.
1598 trak franske Hugonaughts sig tilbage efter Edikt af Nant
1590 Hideyoshi Toyotomi (1536-1598) forener Japan
1565-1616 Shakespeare, Barden, skriver!
1611 "Autoriseret" King James Version af Bibelen udgivet på engelsk
Galileo (1564-1642) foreslår, at jorden ikke er universets centrum
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu overtager føydal kontrol. Gør Edo til politisk centrum i Japan, der begynder 300 års fred.
1610 hævder Henry Hudson New York Hudson Bay for England.
1618-1648 Tredive års krig mellem tyske katolikker og protestanter.
1619 bringer et hollandsk skib de første afrikanske slaver til den engelske koloni Virginia.
16xx efter Iaysus død begynder barnebarnet Imaitsu parader til Edo af regionale daimyos.
1620 Mayflower Compact udarbejdet af puritanske pilgrimme ved deres landing i Provincetown på Cape Cod, Mass.
1623 William Shakespeares skuespil udgives for første gang i bogform.
(1624-1691) George Fox etablerer Quaker-kirken.
1644-1911 regerer Ch'ing-dynastiet i en republik.
1640 John Harvard etablerer universitet for at uddanne præster i Boston.
1648 Fred i Westfalen ender 30 års krig.
1663 Puritaner John Eliot fuldender en oversættelse af Bibelen til indianerne i Massachusetts.
(1628-1688) John Bunyan, engelsk minister og prædikant, skriver Pilgrim's Progress.
1683 Osmanniske rige besejret i Wien.
1693 Jacob Ammon og hans tilhængere, Old Order Amish -pause fra menonitterne.
1699 Guru Gobind Singh organiserer sikher i Khalsa (menneskets broderskab).

Opvågning 1648-1844

1844+ "Moderne" Historie af Frafald og lunken Kirke


19. november 1863 Abe Lincoln leverer Gettysberg -adresse om borgerkrigen
1864 “In God We Trust ” vises først på amerikanske mønter.
14. april 1865 Licoln myrdet
1868 Emporor flytter fra Kyoto (vestlig hovedstad) til Tokyo (påskehovedstad)
1869 Meiji Restoration (af den japanske kejser til magten for første gang siden Heian Periode)
1870-1871 fransk-preussiske krig slutter med etableringen af ​​Tyskland.
1886 sælger Dr. J. Pemberton sin nye drink, Coca-Cola, som en “brain tonic ”.
1873 Remington-firmaet masseproducerer den første moderne skrivemaskine i Amerika.
1878 Petah Tikvah i Judæa og Rosh Pinnah i Galilæa er første jødiske landsbyer i Palæstina, plantning af det moderne Israel.
1882 kinesisk eksklusionslov forhindrer i 60 år kinesisk immigration til USA.
1892 Begyndelsen af ​​zionistisk tilbagevenden til Jerusalem
1893 Henry Ford bygger sin første bil (bil).
1894-5 invaderer Japan Korea, Kina i den kinesisk-japanske krig
1895 Niagara -bibelkonferencen opregnede fem uforanderlige troskrav til et fundamentalistisk individ eller en gruppe
1895 udgiver Sigmund Freud det første arbejde om psykoanalyse, determinisme
Hudson Taylor evangeliserer det indre Kina
1896 Billy Sunday begynder at føre vækkelser i Amerika
1896 Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) bliver far til den politiske zionisme ved at udgive Der Judenstaat (Den jødiske stat), der foreslår en jødisk stat i Palæstina.
April 1896 Første moderne OL afholdt i Athen, Grækenland med 484 atleter fra 13 nationer.
15. februar 1898 bombning af USS Maine starter den spansk-amerikanske krig
10. december 1898, i fredstraktaten i Paris, opgav Spanien alle rettigheder til Cuba, afstået Puerto Rico og Guam til USA, og opgav sine ejendele i Vestindien og solgte de filippinske øer.
29. august 󈟯, 1897 Første zionistiske kongres mødes i Basel, Schweiz under ledelse af Theodor Herzl
1899-1902 Boerkrig ender med britisk kontrol over Sydafrika.
17. december 1903 Wright -brødrene i Akron, Ohio flyver første motoriserede cykel/flyvemaskine ved navn "Bird of Prey" på SC.
18. april 1906 dør 700 San Franciscans i det dødeligste jordskælv i den nordamerikanske historie.
At tale i tunger indleder Azusa Street pinseoplivning i Los Angeles.
1913 amerikansk føderal lov om indkomstskat vedtages
1914-18 WWI &“nation mod nation & quot, udløst af mord på Ferdinand i Jugoslavien, starter på Tisha B'Av.
7. maj 1915 går USA ind i første verdenskrig efter torpedoen på passagerskib "Lusitania."
1916 Slaget i Somme, Frankrig dræber 1.265.000 mand på mindre end en uge.
17. januar '17 Jomfruøerne bliver et amerikansk territorium.
8. december 1917 (7 gange 360 ​​år eller 2520 års straf for det frafaldne Israel for hendes utroskab foreskrevet i 3. Mosebog 26: 24 & 28) Den britiske general Lord Allenby træder ind i Jerusalem efter at tyrkerne gik i panik og forlod Jerusalem uden at der blev affyret et skud. En islamisk profeti forudsagde, at tyrkerne ville miste byen, når en Allahs mand leverede en meddelelse. Propaganda foldere faldt på tyrkerne blev underskrevet af Lord Allenby. Da tyrkerne flygtede, efterlod de et overgivelsesbrev, som blev bragt til den kristne general Allenby, da han og hans betjente bad.
1917 britisk Balfour -erklæring "Hans Majestæts regering anser med fordel oprettelsen af ​​et nationalt hjem for det jødiske folk i Palæstina" begynder anden jødiske udvandring.
11. november 1918 Våbenhviledag afslutning på første verdenskrig, da de allieredes magter underskrev en våbenhvile-aftale (våbenhvile) med Tyskland i Forest of Compiegne i Rethondes, Frankrig. Omdøbt til "Veterans Day" i 1954.
1921 Forbud i Amerika
Juli 1925 bliver skolelærer John Scopes fundet skyldig i at have overtrådt TN Butler -lovforslaget mod at undervise i evolution i "Monkey Trial". Men som den første amerikanske retssag, der blev sendt nationalt på radio, mistede kristen fundamentalisme terræn.

1928 Alexander Fleming opdager penicillin.

14. maj 1948 erklærer Israel uafhængighed for at undgå at blive delt (opfylder Ezekiel 4: 3-6, Ezekiel 48, 3. Mosebog 26:18) efter 2. seige af Egypten (Ham), TransJordan, Labanon, Saudi Arabien (Sheba & Dedan), Syrien og Irak (Shem).
'48 Essenes 'Dødehavsruller fra før 68 e.Kr. fundet i Qumram -huler
1. okt. 49 Folkerepublikken Kina er formelt oprettet.
25. juni begynder 50 USA-Korea-krig, da nordkoreanere krydser 38. parallel.
'52 Biskop Sheen trækker 30 millioner seere til sit tv -program "Life Worth Worth".
28. februar '53 Watson og Creek modellerer DNA'et.
'53 Edmund Hillary og guide Tenzing Norgay foretager første bestigning af Mount Everest
25. juni '62 Højesteret forbyder bøn i skolen i Engel vs Vitale, den første sag, hvor Højesteret ikke citerede tidligere præcedenser eller juridiske sager ved at træffe sin afgørelse, hvilket skabte udtrykket "adskillelse af kirke og stat".
60'ernes vietnamesiske krig, fredsmarcher,
12. april 1961 sovjetiske kosmonaut Yuri Gagarin er det første menneske, der sættes i rummet.
2. februar '62 Jordens måne, Merkur, Venus, Mars, Jupiter og Saturn stemmer alle overens i stjernebilledet Vandmanden.
1965 Den jødiske ateistiske psykolog Helen Schucman skriver A Course in Miracles
30. oktober 1961 Sovjetunionen detonerer 50 megaton (2600 gange Hiroshima -bomben) over Novaya Zemla -øerne.

5-10. Juni '67 Israel genvinder Jerusalem efter 3. seige "6 dages krig". —den 'Tegn på tidens ende' Hedningernes tider opfyldt af bladene, der spruttede fra figentræet med det unge Israel i en alder af 19 år.
8. juni '67 Isreali -tropper kommer tilbage til tempelområdet (1035 år efter 632 e.Kr.) som forudsagt i Zecharia 2.
'67 Martin Luther King holder "I Have a Dream" -tale i Wash. DC
__ KSFG, den første kristne radiostation begynder at sende fra Los Angeles.
__ Roe [Mary McDonald?] Vs Wade legaliserer abort
22. november '63 John F. Kennedy bliver myrdet
Juli, '69 Neil Armstrong og Buzz Aldrin er de første mænd på månen
'69 Californien er den første stat, der har vedtaget skilsmisse uden fejl.
Oktober 1969 Internettet fødes med en besked transporteret over ARPAnet fra UCLA's Network Measurement Center til Stanford University.
29. april '75 Saigon falder, når amerikanerne forlader.

17. september '78 slutter Israel fred med Egypten (Er dette Ezekiel 29: 6-7)
November '78 Jim Jones orkestrerer massemordet på 912 tilhængere af Folkets tempel i Jonestown, Guyana.
4. november '79 - 52 amerikanske gidsler begynder 444 dage i Teheran, Iran
'80 Højesteret fjerner 10 bud fra skoler i Kentucky
'84 Yogi Shri Haidakhan Babaji (f. 1970) dør i Haidakhan, Indien efter at have forudsagt en stor revolution. Han underviste i sandhed, enkelhed og kærlighed med Karma Yoga (service til menneskeheden)
4. november '86 Jomfruøerne bliver et amerikansk territorium.
'87 Højesteret forbyder kreationisme fra Lousiana -gymnasier
Jim & Tammy Bakker
2. august 1990 Irak invaderer Kuwait for at udløse amerikansk ørkenstormkrig
7. august '90 ankommer amerikanske styrker til Saudi -Arabien, og det ser nogle som krænker den "ene religion" i det hellige muslimske land Mekka og Medina.
17. november '90 Ikke-aggressionspagt underskrevet mellem NATO og Warszawapagten.
25. december '91 annoncerer Gorbatjov "Jeg stopper mine aktiviteter som præsident for U.S.S.R." — afslutter Sovjetunionen.
'91 Promise Keepers startet af træner McCartney
21.-22. August '92 FBI dræber "hvid separatist" Randy Weaver og familie på Ruby Ridge, Idaho
13. september '93 Jimmy Carter arrangerer en 7-årig “Peace Accord ” Oslo-aftaler og håndtryk mellem Anwar Sadat & Menakim Bagin (opfylder Daniel 9:27?)
'93 FBI brænder Waco, TX -sammensætningen af ​​David Koresh ned
Apr '94 Mandela (75 år) valgt til Sydafrikas første sorte præsident

5. maj '94 palæstinensere indtager israelsk kontrolleret Jeriko og 25 kvadratkilometer af Gazastriben. (Se Josua 6:26)
Sorte kirker brændes.
USA trækker sig tilbage fra Somalia efter et bin Laden -støttet angreb.
Louis Farakahs Million Man March til Washington DC
19. april '95 Tim McVay bomber føderal bygning i Oklahoma City og dræber 168.
'96 O.J. Simpson prøvet og frifundet (mediecirkus)
'96 Matchende kristen velgørende penge -ordning kollapser
Okt. '96 First Promise Keepers -stævne i Washington DC
'97 Hale-Boppers begår selvmord
'97 Monica og Bill Clinton - Alle præsidentens kvinder
1. januar '99 Fælles europæisk valuta (med 11 af de 15 EU -medlemsstater)
Columbine High School -skoven.
1. januar 2000 Millenium galskab sker ikke. Boris Yeltzin overdrager magt til KGB -direktør Putkin.
15. februar '00 Efter at have giftet sig med "Who Wants to Marry a Multi-millionaire", har bruden Darva Conga annulleret ægteskab og senere stillet sig i Playboy.
20. marts '00 brister internetboblen, da NASDAQ når en højde på 5.500.
Juni '00 er det menneskelige genom kortlagt
11. september '01 Al Queda — ledet af Bin Laden, en saudiarabisk sunni i Afgahnistan — sender 4 fly til NY WTC, Pentagon.
2002 Isreals jubilæumsår i den traditionelle kalender.
2002 USA invaderer Irak for at erstatte Iraks sunnimuslimske diktatur med en valgt regering domineret af landets shiitiske flertal. Ironisk nok styrker det irakiske demokrati shiitterne i Iran og Libanon.
7. juli 05 Fire bomber går i London
06. februar Syrien forlader Libanon.
6. juli (9. Av, Tisha b'Av) Israel undlod afgørende at vinde iransk-syrisk støttet shiitisk Hizbollah i Libanon.
Vali Nasr i "The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future" (WW Norton & Co, 2006) siger "Den overordnede sunni-shiitiske konflikt vil spille en stor rolle i at definere Mellemøsten som helhed og forme dens forholdet til omverdenen. "

Fremtid: Dom

“. Issakars sønner havde forståelse for tiden, at vide hvad Israel burde gøre, ” (KJV)

Jeg kan bedre lide fremtidens drømme end fortidens historie. ”

“Vi fejrer fortiden for at vække fremtiden. ”

At prøve at planlægge fremtiden uden at tænke på fortiden er som at prøve at plante snitblomster. ”

Portioner & kopi Copyright 1996-2014 Wilson Mar. Alle rettigheder forbeholdes. | Fortrolighedspolitik | Sidst opdateret


Tidligt liv

Fra barndommen var hun bemærkelsesværdig for sin fantastiske hukommelse, og i en alder af 16 vandt hun en guldmedalje ved afslutningen af ​​sin gymnasiale uddannelse på den russiske lycée. Fordi hendes far, en lærer i matematik og fysik, mistede sine opsparinger ved dårlige investeringer, måtte hun tage arbejde som lærer og deltog samtidig hemmeligt i det nationalistiske "gratis universitet" og læste på polsk for kvindelige arbejdere . I en alder af 18 tog hun en stilling som guvernør, hvor hun led et ulykkeligt kærlighedsforhold. Fra sin indtjening kunne hun finansiere sin søster Bronisławas medicinstudier i Paris med den forståelse, at Bronisława til gengæld senere ville hjælpe hende med at få en uddannelse.


Konkurrerende krav

Winston Churchill talte til mængden under folketingsvalget, juli 1945 © Det var ikke fra en forpligtelse til at feste, men for at konsolidere sin autoritet som krigsleder, at Churchill havde overtaget de konservatives ledelse efter hinanden til Neville Chamberlain i oktober 1940. Han tænkte på festen meget som en ridder i middelalderen tænkte på sin hest, som et bjerg at gå i kamp på.

Aldrig har et parti været så lederløst, som det konservative parti er i dag.

Denne enstemning kunne naturligvis ses som et stort aktiv i en periode med national nødsituation, men der er ingen tvivl om, at Churchill tilsidesatte konservative interesser i krigsårene. 'Aldrig har et parti været så lederløst, som det konservative parti er i dag', skrev en konservativ parlamentsmedlem i oktober 1944.

I mellemtiden førte Arbejderpartiet og dets allierede i medierne en effektiv propagandakrig på hjemmefronten. De fordømte medlemmer af det førkrigs konservative parti som at have været appeasers af Hitler og for at have været ansvarlige for den manglende genrustning af Storbritannien. Og de malede 1930'erne i dystre farver som en æra med fattigdom og massearbejdsløshed. Samtidig holdt de udsigten til en ny social orden, der ville sikre bedre boliger, gratis lægehjælp og beskæftigelse for alle.


Social sikring

Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) fordele for cirka 70 millioner amerikanere vil stige 1,3 procent i 2021.

Tilpasningen af ​​leveomkostningerne på 1,3 procent (COLA) begynder med ydelser, der skal betales til mere end 64 millioner sociale sikringsmodtagere i januar 2021. Øgede betalinger til mere end 8 millioner SSI-modtagere begynder den 31. december 2020. (Bemærk: nogle mennesker modtager både social sikring og SSI -ydelser)

Det maksimale indtægtsbeløb, der er omfattet af socialsikringsafgiften (skattepligtigt maksimum), stiger til $ 142.800.

Indtjeningsgrænsen for arbejdstagere, der er yngre end "fuld" pensionsalder (se fuld pensionsalderdiagram) vil stige til $ 18.960. (Vi fratrækker $ 1 fra fordele for hver $ 2 tjent over $ 18.960.)

Indtjeningsgrænsen for folk, der når deres "fulde" pensionsalder i 2021, stiger til $ 50.520. (Vi fratrækker $ 1 fra fordele for hver $ 3, der er optjent over $ 50.520, indtil den måned, arbejdstageren bliver "fuld" pensionsalder.)

Der er ingen grænser for lønnen for arbejdstagere, der er "fuld" pensionsalder eller ældre for hele året.

Medicare -oplysninger

Oplysninger om Medicare -ændringer for 2021, når de annonceres, vil være tilgængelige på www.medicare.gov. For modtagere af social sikring, der modtager Medicare, vil social sikring først kunne beregne deres nye ydelsesbeløb, efter at Medicare -præmiebeløb for 2021 er annonceret. Endelige ydelsesbeløb i 2021 vil blive meddelt modtagerne i december via den udsendte COLA -meddelelse og min sociale sikrings meddelelsescenter.

Din COLA -meddelelse

I december 2020 vil COLA -meddelelser om social sikring være tilgængelige online for de fleste modtagere i meddelelsescentret på deres min sociale sikringskonto.

Dette er en sikker og bekvem måde at modtage COLA -meddelelser online og gemme beskeden til senere. Du kan også fravælge modtagelse af meddelelser via mail, der er tilgængelige online. Sørg for at vælge din foretrukne måde at modtage høflighedsmeddelelser, så du ikke går glip af din sikre, praktiske online COLA -meddelelse.

Husk, at vores tjenester er gratis. Intet statsligt agentur eller velrenommeret virksomhed vil anmode om dine personlige oplysninger eller anmode om avancerede gebyrer for tjenester i form af bankoverførsler eller gavekort. Undgå at blive offer for svigagtige opkald og internet "phishing" -ordninger ved ikke at afsløre personlige oplysninger, vælge ondsindede links eller åbne ondsindede vedhæftede filer. Du kan lære mere om, hvordan vi beskytter dine personlige oplysninger og min socialsikringskonto her.

Historie om automatiske leveomkostningsjusteringer (COLA)

Formålet med COLA er at sikre, at købekraften til socialsikrings- og supplerende sikkerhedsindkomst (SSI) fordele ikke eroderes af inflation. Den er baseret på den procentvise stigning i forbrugerprisindekset for byløntjenere og -medarbejdere (CPI-W) fra tredje kvartal sidste år, der blev fastlagt en COLA til tredje kvartal i indeværende år. Hvis der ikke er nogen stigning, kan der ikke være nogen COLA.

CPI-W bestemmes af Bureau of Labor Statistics i Department of Labor. Ved lov er det den officielle foranstaltning, der anvendes af Social Security Administration til at beregne COLA'er.

Kongressen vedtog COLA -bestemmelsen som en del af 1972 -ændringerne til social sikring, og automatiske årlige COLA'er begyndte i 1975. Før det blev fordelene kun forhøjet, da kongressen vedtog særlig lovgivning.

Fra 1975 startede socialsikringen med automatiske årlige leveomkostninger. Ændringen blev vedtaget af lovgivning, der knytter COLA'er til den årlige stigning i forbrugerprisindekset (CPI-W).

Ændringen betyder, at inflationen ikke længere dræner værdi fra socialsikringsydelser.

COLA'erne fra 1975-82 var effektive med sociale sikringsydelser, der skulle betales for juni (modtaget af modtagerne i juli) i hvert af disse år. Efter 1982 har COLA'er været effektive med fordele, der skal betales for december (modtaget af modtagerne i januar).


Tobaksindustri Marketing

Kvinder er også målrettet af tobaksindustrien, og tobaksvirksomheder producerer fortsat mærker specielt til kvinder. Markedsføring mod kvinder domineres af temaer om social ønsket, empowerment og uafhængighed, som formidles af reklamer med slanke, attraktive og atletiske modeller. 6,7

Racemæssige/etniske fællesskaber

Reklame og reklame for visse tobaksvarer ser ud til at være målrettet medlemmer af racemæssige/minoritetssamfund.

  • Markedsføring til latinamerikanere og amerikanske indianere/Alaska indfødte har inkluderet reklame og reklame for cigaretmærker med navne som Rio, Dorado og American Spirit. 7,8
  • Tobaksindustrien har målrettet afroamerikanske samfund i sine reklamer og salgsfremmende indsats for mentholcigaretter. Strategierne omfatter: 5,7
    • Kampagner, der bruger bykultur og sprog til at promovere mentholcigaretter
    • Tobaks-sponsoreret hip-hop baraftener med prøver af specielle mentholcigaretter
    • Målrettede kampagner med direkte mail
    • Tobaksvirksomheder og rsquo -marketing til asiatiske amerikanere har inkluderet: 7,8
      • Sponsorship of Chinese and Vietnamese New Year festivals and other activities related to Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month
      • Heavy billboard and in-store advertisements in predominantly urban Asian American communities
      • Financial and in-kind contributions to community organizations
      • Support of Asian American business associations

      Referencer

      1. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Cigarette Report for 2019 pdf icon [PDF &ndash 1.1 MB] external icon . Washington: Federal Trade Commission, 2021 [accessed 2021 Apr 27].
      2. U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Federal Trade Smokeless Tobacco Report for 2019 pdf icon [PDF &ndash 1 MB] external icon . Washington: Federal Trade Commission, 2021 [accessed 2021 Apr 27].
      3. Census Bureau. Quick Facts United States: Population Estimates external icon . Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 20178 [accessed 2020 Apr 16].
      4. Creamer MR, Wang TW, Babb S, et al. Tobacco Product Use and Cessation Indicators Among Adults &ndash United States, 2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2019, 68(45)1013-1019. [accessed 2020 Apr 16]
      5. Perks SN, Armour B, Agaku IT. Cigarette Brand Preference and Pro-Tobacco Advertising Among Middle and High School Students&mdashUnited States, 2012&ndash2016 . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 201867(4):119&ndash24 [accessed 2018 Apr 17].
      6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General . Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2001 [accessed 2017 Nov 3].
      7. National Cancer Institute. The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. external icon . Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 2008 [accessed 2017 Nov 3].
      8. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups&mdashAfrican Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General . Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998 [accessed 2017 Nov 3].

      For Further Information

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      Office on Smoking and Health
      E-mail: [email protected]
      Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO

      Media Inquiries: Contact CDC&rsquos Office on Smoking and Health press line at 770-488-5493.


      5. Humanitarian crisis

      More than 4.5 million people have fled Syria since the start of the conflict, most of them women and children. Neighbouring Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey have struggled to cope with one of the largest refugee exoduses in recent history. About 10% of Syrian refugees have sought safety in Europe, sowing political divisions as countries argue over sharing the burden.

      A further 6.5 million people are internally displaced inside Syria, 1.2 million were driven from their homes in 2015 alone.

      The UN says it will need $3.2bn to help the 13.5 million people, including 6 million children, who will require some form of humanitarian assistance inside Syria in 2016. About 70% of the population is without access to adequate drinking water, one in three people are unable to meet their basic food needs, and more than 2 million children are out of school, and four out of five people live in poverty.

      The warring parties have compounded the problems by refusing humanitarian agencies access to civilians in need. Up to 4.5 million people in Syria live in hard-to-reach areas, including nearly 400,000 people in 15 besieged locations who do not have access to life-saving aid.


      Clark County Comprehensive Planning

      Clark County maintains authoritative information on data such as population, resident demographics, housing and land-use guides.

      McCarran International Airport

      Las Vegas’ primary airport collects information on airline passengers, average daily flights, air seats and other statistics regarding scheduled, charter and commuter air traffic at Clark County airports.

      Nevada Gaming Control Board

      This state agency collects and distributes gaming revenue information, making monthly, quarterly and annual reports available. It also issues booklets regarding gaming regulations, the U.S. gaming industry and the Nevada Gaming Control Act.

      Las Vegas Global Economic Alliance (LVGEA)

      This public-private partnership is focused on growing the economy in Southern Nevada through community development and business recruitment, retention and outreach.

      Nevada Dept. of Employment, Training & Rehabilitation

      This state agency distributes information on Nevada employment, such as labor force estimates, wage surveys, employment guides and more.

      Nevada Department of Transportation

      This state agency distributes information on traffic volume for all state and interstate highways throughout Nevada.

      UNLV Center for Business & Economic Research (CBER)

      CBER provides information that encompasses aspects of the business community, including private, commercial and residential development, public transportation and communication systems.

      UNLV Center For Gaming Research

      This resource maintains several valuable online resources, including a guide for media and entertainment professionals, an online thesis/dissertation group for graduate researchers, a reading room with topical articles on gaming issues, a message board and an extensive links page.

      UNLV International Gaming Institute

      Billed as the “global intellectual capital of gaming,” the IGI provides gaming research and programs to more than 50 jurisdictions across the globe.


      Record Books for Midsummer Classic Games

      On July 6, 1983, Fred Lynn came to bat in the third inning with the bases loaded against Atlee Hammaker. The only All-Star grand slam in history was hit that moment and eight records were set.

      Mickey Mantle (1954-1960), Joe Morgan (1970-1977) and Dave Winfield (1982-1988) are the only three players in All-Star history to each bat safely in seven back-to-back All-Star games. The Commerce Comet played in both the 1960 All-Star Game and the 1960 World Series, each of which was played in New York City, prompting baseball fan Tom Bowen to wonder how many times has a club hosted both an All-Star Game and World Series in the same year. His research found:

      Teams Who Hosted All-Star Game & World Series
      (In the Same Season)
      År Host All-Star Game World Series
      1939 New York Yankees 1939 All-Star Game 1939 World Series
      1946 Boston Red Sox 1946 All-Star Game 1946 World Series
      1949 Brooklyn Dodgers 1949 All-Star Game 1949 World Series
      1954 Cleveland Indians 1954 All-Star Game 1954 World Series
      1959 Los Angeles Dodgers 1959 All-Star Game 1959 World Series
      1960 New York Yankees 1960 All-Star Game 1960 World Series
      1965 Minnesota Twins 1965 All-Star Game 1965 World Series
      1970 Cincinnati Reds 1970 All-Star Game 1970 World Series
      1977 New York Yankees 1977 All-Star Game 1977 World Series
      1997 Cleveland Indians 1997 All-Star Game 1997 World Series

      Stan Musial holds the All-Star record for most games as a pinch hitter with ten games (a record) and ten pinch-hit at-bats (another record)!


      60 Terrorist Plots Since 9/11: Continued Lessons in Domestic Counterterrorism

      Of the 60 plots, 49 could be considered homegrown terror plots.

      The best way to protect the United States from the continued threat of terrorism is to ensure a strong and capable domestic counterterrorism enterprise.

      At 2:50 p.m. on April 15, 2013, two explosions went off at the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The brazen terrorist attack killed three people, injured and maimed hundreds more, and shocked the nation. Despite being long recognized as a potential threat by law enforcement and intelligence, few Americans had considered the use of an improvised explosive device (IED) on American soil. And, due to only a few, and relatively small, attacks since 9/11, the public was not in a state of awareness.

      Yet, the fact remains that there have been at least 60 Islamist-inspired terrorist plots against the homeland since 9/11, illustrating the continued threat of terrorism against the United States. Fifty-three of these plots were thwarted long before the public was ever in danger, due in large part to the concerted efforts of U.S. law enforcement and intelligence.

      The Heritage Foundation has tracked the foiled terrorist plots against the United States since 9/11 in an effort to study the evolving nature of the threat and garner lessons learned. The best way to protect the United States from the continued threat of terrorism is to ensure a strong and capable domestic counterterrorism enterprise—and to understand the continuing nature of the terror threat.

      The bombings in Boston are not likely to be the last such attempt to attack the U.S. as a whole. Now is not the time for the U.S. to stand still. Congress and the Administration should:

      • Ensure a proactive approach to halting terrorism,
      • Maintain essential counterterrorism tools,
      • Break down silos of information,
      • Streamline the domestic counterterrorism system, and
      • Fully implement a strategy to counter violent extremism

      Strengthening the Domestic Counterterrorism Enterprise

      Three months after the attack at the Boston Marathon, the pendulum of awareness of the terrorist threat has already begun to swing back, just as it did after 9/11. Due to the resilience of the nation and its people, for most, life has returned to business as usual. The threat of terrorism against the United States, however, remains.

      Expecting to stop each and every threat that reaches a country’s borders is unreasonable, particularly in a free society committed to individual liberty. Nevertheless, there are important steps that America’s leaders can take to strengthen the U.S. domestic counterterrorism enterprise and continue to make the U.S. a harder target. Congress and the Administration should:

      • Ensure a proactive approach to preventing terrorist attacks. Despite the persistent threat of terrorism, the Obama Administration continues to focus on reactive policies and prosecuting terrorists rather than on proactive efforts to enhance intelligence tools and thwart terrorist attempts. This strategy fails to recognize the pervasive nature of the threat posed by terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and homegrown extremism. The Administration, and the nation as a whole, should continue to keep in place a robust, enduring, and proactive counterterrorism framework in order to identify and thwart terrorist threats long before the public is in danger.
      • Maintain essential counterterrorism tools. Support for important investigative tools such as the PATRIOT Act is essential to maintaining the security of the U.S. and combating terrorist threats. Key provisions within the act, such as the roving surveillance authority and business records provision, have proved essential for thwarting terror plots, yet they require frequent reauthorization. In order to ensure that law enforcement and intelligence authorities have the essential counterterrorism tools they need, Congress should seek permanent authorization of the three sun setting provisions within the PATRIOT Act.[208] Furthermore, legitimate government surveillance programs are also a vital component of U.S. national security, and should be allowed to continue. Indeed, in testimony before the house, General Keith Alexander, the director of the National Security Agency (NSA), revealed that more than 50 incidents of potential terrorism at home and abroad were stopped by the set of NSA surveillance programs that have recently come under scrutiny. That said, the need for effective counterterrorism operations does not relieve the government of its obligation to follow the law and respect individual privacy and liberty. In the American system, the government must do both equally well.
      • Break down the silos of information. Washington should emphasize continued cooperation and information sharing among federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies to prevent terrorists from slipping through the cracks between the various jurisdictions. In particular, the FBI should make a more concerted effort to share information more broadly with state and local law enforcement. State and local law enforcement agencies are the front lines of the U.S. national security strategy. As a result, local authorities are able to recognize potential danger and identify patterns that the federal authorities may miss. They also take the lead in community outreach, which is crucial to identifying and stopping “lone wolf” actors and other homegrown extremists. Federal law enforcement, on the other hand, is not designed to fight against this kind of threat it is built to battle cells, groups, and organizations, not individuals.
      • Streamline the domestic counterterrorism system. The domestic counterterrorism enterprise should base future improvements on the reality that governments at all levels are fiscally in crisis. Rather than add additional components to the system, law enforcement officials should streamline the domestic counterterrorism enterprise by improving current capabilities, leveraging state and local law enforcement resources and authorities, and, in some cases, reducing components where the terrorist threat is not high and the financial support is too thin or could be allocated more effectively. For example, the Department of Homeland Security should dramatically reduce the number of fusion centers, many of which exist in low-risk areas or areas where similar capabilities exist. An easy way to reduce the number of fusion centers is to eliminate funding to those that are located outside the 31 urban areas designated as the highest risk.
      • Fully implement a strategy to counter violent extremism. Countering violent extremism is an important complementary effort to an effective counterterrorism strategy. In August 2011, the U.S. government released a strategic plan called “Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States.”[209] The plan focuses on outlining how federal agencies can assist local officials, groups, and private organizations in preventing violent extremism. It includes strengthening law enforcement cooperation and helping communities understand how to counter extremist propaganda (particularly online). Sadly, this plan is not a true strategy. It fails to assign responsibilities and does not direct action or resource investments. More direction and leadership must be applied to transform a laundry list of good ideas into an effective program to support communities in protecting and strengthening civil society.

      Vigilance Is Not Optional

      In a political environment of sequestration on the one hand and privacy concerns on the other, there are those on both sides of the aisle who argue that counterterrorism spending should be cut and U.S. intelligence agencies reigned in. As the above list indicates however, the long war on terrorism is far from over. Most disturbingly, an increasing number of Islamist-inspired terrorist attacks are originating within America’s borders. The rise of homegrown extremism is the next front in the fight against terrorism and should be taken seriously by the Administration.

      While there has not been another successful attack on the homeland on the scale of 9/11, the bombings in Boston reminded the country that the threat of terrorism is real and that continued vigilance is critical to keeping America safe. Congress and the Administration must continue to upgrade and improve the counterterrorism capabilities of law enforcement and intelligence agencies as well exercise proper oversight of these capabilities. The American people are resilient, but the lesson of Boston is that the government can and should do more to prevent future terror attacks.

      [1] The Heritage Foundation has previously cited the Los Angeles airport ticket-counter shooting in 2002 as a successful terrorist attack. Due to the fact that there remains very little information about the motivations of the perpetrator of this attack, Heritage has decided not to include this incident in this report.

      [2] This Special Report uses a definition of homegrown terrorism also used by the Congressional Research Service: “‘homegrown’ or ‘domestic’ describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States.”

      [3] Pam Belluck, “Crew Grabs Man Explosive Feared,” The New York Times, December 23, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/23/us/crew-grabs-man-explosive-feared.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [4] Fergal Parkinson, “‘Shoe Bomber’ Defiant After Life Sentence,” BBC, January 31, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2712445.stm (accessed May 10, 2011), and Maria Ressa, “Sources: Reid Is Al Qaeda Operative,” CNN, December 6, 2003, http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/01/30/reid.alqaeda (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [5] “Shoebomb Plotter Given 13 Years,” BBC News, April 22, 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4474307.stm (accessed September 1, 2011).

      [6] Jose Padilla v. C. T. Hanft, U.S.N. Commander, Consolidated Naval Brig., United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, No. 05-6396, September 9, 2005, http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/padhnft90905opn4th.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [7] “Profile: Jose Padilla,” BBC, August 16, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2037444.stm (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [8] Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 542 U.S. 426 (2004).

      [9] Kirk Semple, “Padilla Gets 17 Years in Conspiracy Case,” The New York Times, January 23, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/23/us/23padilla.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [10] Nathan Koppel, “Appellate Court Rules Jose Padilla’s Terrorist Sentence Too Lenient,” The Wall Street Journal, September 19, 2011, http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2011/09/19/appellate-court-rules-jose-padillas-terrorist-sentence-too-lenient/ (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [12] Peter James Spielmann, “ACLU Seeks OAS Probe of Padilla Case,” Associated Press, December 11, 2012, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/dec/11/aclu-seeks-oas-probe-padilla-case/?page=all (accessed July 3, 2013).

      [13] Michael Powell, “No Choice But Guilty,” The Washington Post, July 23, 2008.

      [14] Roya Aziz and Monica Lam, “Profiles: The Lackawanna Cell,” PBS Frontline, October 16, 2003, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sleeper/inside/profiles.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [15] Lou Michel, “U.S. Gives Half of the Lackawanna Six a Fresh Start,” The Buffalo News, August 20, 2010, http://www.buffalonews.com/incoming/article159216.ece (accessed September 2, 2011).

      [16] “Lackawanna Six: Ten Years Later,” WGRZ TV, video, September 14, 2012, http://www.wgrz.com/news/article/181654/1/Lackawanna-Six-Ten-Years-Later (accessed June 7, 2013).

      [18] “Pakistani on US al-Qaeda Charge,” BBC, August 8, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3136547.stm (accessed April 17, 2012), and Julia Preston, “Man Helped Qaeda Figure, Jury Here Finds,” The New York Times, November 24, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/24/nyregion/24terror.html (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [20] Eric Lichtblau and Monica Davey, “Threats and Responses: Terror Suspect in Plot on Bridge Drew Interest Earlier,” The New York Times, June 21, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/21/us/threats-and-responses-terror-suspect-in-plot-on-bridge-drew-interest-earlier.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [21] Eric Lichtblau, “Trucker Sentenced to 20 Years in Plot Against Brooklyn Bridge,” The New York Times, October 29, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/29/us/trucker-sentenced-to-20-years-in-plot-against-brooklyn-bridge.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [23] “Student Convicted in Plot to Assassinate President Bush,” Fox News, November 23, 2005, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,176409,00.html (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [24] “American Al-Qaeda Gets Life in Prison for Bush Plot,” Agence France-Presse, July 27, 2009, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gvn6aq8ZB9yWuVbhKuVtqsFSsRwQ (accessed April 13, 2012).

      [25] Jerry Markon and Mary Beth Sheridan, “Indictment Expands ‘Va. Jihad’ Charges,” The Washington Post, September 26, 2003, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A2730-2003Sep25.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [26] Jerry Markon, “Teacher Sentenced for Aiding Terrorists,” The Washington Post, August 26, 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/25/AR2006082500460.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [27] Markon and Sheridan, “Indictment Expands ‘Va. Jihad’ Charges,” and News release, “‘Virginia Jihad’ Member Sentenced to 121 Months in Prison,” U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of Virginia, July 24, 2007, http://www.justice.gov/usao/vae/Pressreleases/07-JulyPDFArchive/07/20070724benkahlanr.html (accessed May 5, 2011). Royer was sentenced to 20 years in prison, al-Hamdi to 15 years, Kwon to 11.5 years, Hasan to 11.5 years, Aatique to 10 years and two months, and Surratt to three years and 10 months. Khan was sentenced to life in prison, Chapman to 65 years, and Abdur-Raheem to 52 months.

      [28] News release, “Randall Todd Royer and Ibrahim Ahmed al-Hamdi Sentenced for Participation in Virginia Jihad Network,” U.S. Department of Justice, April 9, 2004, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2004/April/04_crm_225.htm (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [29] News release, “Ohio Man Pleads Guilty to Conspiracy to Provide Material Support to Terrorists,” U.S. Department of Justice, July 31, 2007, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2007/July/07_nsd_568.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [30] Andrew Welsh-Huggins, “Ohio Mall Terrorism Defendant Deported to Somalia,” Associated Press, November 19, 2012, http://bigstory.ap.org/article/ohio-mall-terrorism-defendant-deported-somalia (accessed June 7, 2013).

      [31] “Bomb Scare Has Echoes of Earlier Plots,” CNN, June 30, 2007, http://edition2.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/06/29/uk.plots/index.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [32] “Al-Qaeda Plotter Jailed for Life,” BBC, November 7, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6123236.stm (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [33] “‘Dirty Bomb’ Man’s Sentence Cut,” BBC, April 16, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6661371.stm (accessed April 19, 2010).

      [34] “Al-Qaeda Bomb Plot Commander’s Team Follow Him to Prison,” The Sunday Times, June 16, 2007, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article1940271.ece (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [35] News release, “Shahawar Matin Siraj Convicted of Conspiring to Place Explosives at the 34th Street Subway Station,” U.S. Attorney’s Office Eastern District of New York, May 24, 2006, http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/nye/pr/2006/2006may24.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [38] Jarrett Murphy, “2 Men Snared in Missile Sting: Mosque Leaders Charged with Trying to Buy Missile from Government Informer,” CBS News, August 5, 2004, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/08/05/terror/main634339.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [39] United States of America v. Yassin Muhiddin Aref and Muhammed Mosharref Hossain, United States District Court for the Northern District of New York, August 5, 2004, http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/albany/usaref80504cmp.pdf (accessed May 10, 2011).

      [40] Adam Liptak, “Spying Program May Be Tested by Terror Case,” The New York Times, August 26, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/us/26wiretap.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [41] News release, “Hamid Hayat Sentenced to 24 Years in Connection with Terrorism Charges,” U.S. Department of Justice, September 10, 2007, http://justice.gov/opa/pr/2007/September/07_nsd_700.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [42] U.S. v. Hamid Hayat and Umer Hayat, criminal complaint, FindLaw, June 7, 2005, http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/terrorism/ushayat607056.html (accessed September 1, 2011).

      [43] Carolyn Marshall, “24-Year Term for Californian in Terrorism Training Case,” The New York Times, September 11, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/11/us/11lodi.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [44] Sam Stanton, Denny Walsh, and Stephen Magagnini, “Divided Appellate Panel Upholds Terrorist Conviction of Lodi’s Hamid Hayat,” The Sacramento Bee, March 14, 2013, http://www.sacbee.com/2013/03/13/5260764/divided-appellate-panel-upholds.html (accessed June 7, 2013).

      [45] “Four Charged with Hatching Prison Terror Plot: California Inmates Allegedly Created Extremist Muslim Gang Behind Bars,” MSNBC, August 31, 2005, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9148467 (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [46] Rachanee Srisavasdi, “Man Sentenced for Role in Plot to Kill Jews, Attack Military Bases,” The Orange County Register, August 17, 2009, http://www.ocregister.com/news/samana-168436-months-carney.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [47] “U.S. Man Sentenced to 30 Years in Plot to Blow Up Pipelines,” International Herald Tribune, November 6, 2007.

      [48] Jeremy Grad, “Reynolds Gets 30 Years in Terror Plot,” Times Leader (Wilkes–Barre, PA), November 7, 2007.

      [49] “U.S. Man Sentenced to 30 Years,” International Herald Tribune.

      [50] Grad, “Reynolds Gets 30 Years in Terror Plot.”

      [51] “U.S. Man Sentenced to 30 Years,” International Herald Tribune.

      [52] United States of America v. Mohammad Zaki Amawi, Marwan Othman El-Hindi, and Zand Wassim Mazloum, The United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, Western Division, February 16, 2006, http://www.justice.gov/opa/documents/indictment_22006.pdf (accessed September 1, 2011).

      [54] Grand jury indictment for United States v. Mohammed Zaki Amawi et al., January 19, 2007, http://www.justice.gov/opa/documents/indictment_22006.pdf (accessed May 10, 2011).

      [55] Mike Wilkinson and Christina Hall, “3 Charged in Terror Plot Local Suspects Planned Attacks in Iraq, U.S. Says,” Toledo Blade, February 22, 2006.

      [56] News release, “Three Sentenced for Conspiring to Commit Terrorist Acts Against Americans Overseas,” U.S. Department of Justice, October 22, 2009, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/US_v_Amawi_dojprsent.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [57] “Attempted Murder Charges in UNC Hit-and-Run,” ABC Local News, March 4, 2006, http://abclocal.go.com/wtvd/story?section=news/local&id=3960899 (accessed June 11, 2013).

      [58] “State of North Carolina v. Taheri-Azar, Mohammed Reza,” The Investigative Project on Terrorism, http://www.investigativeproject.org/case/176 (accessed June 11, 2013).

      [59] “Trial Looms for U.S. Suspect in Alleged Jihad Plot,” Associated Press, May 31, 2009, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,523578,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [60] Bill Rankin, “Atlanta Terrorism Suspect Seeks to Represent Himself,” The Atlanta Journal–Constitution, March 3, 2009, http://www.ajc.com/services/content/metro/atlanta/stories/2009/03/03/terrorism_suspect.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [61] Bill Rankin, “Ex-Tech Student Found Guilty on Terrorism Charge,” The Atlanta Journal–Constitution, June 10, 2009, http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/stories/2009/06/10/terrorism_trial_tech.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [62] News release, “Ehsanul Islam Sadequee Receives 17 Years in Prison Co-Defendant Syed Haris Ahmed Receives 13 Years,” U.S. Department of Justice, December 14, 2009, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/US_v_HarisAhmed_dojprsentencing.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [63] “Indictment: Suspects Wanted to ‘Kill All the Devils We Can,’” CNN, June 24, 2006, http://www.cnn.com/2006/US/06/23/miami.raids/index.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [64] Peter Whoriskey, “Man Acquitted in Terror Case Faces Deportation,” The Washington Post, March 2, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/01/AR2008030101566.html (accessed May 10, 2011).

      [65] Julienne Gage, “2nd Mistrial in ‘Liberty City 7’ Case,” The Washington Post, April 17, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/16/AR2008041603607.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [66] “Sears Tower Bomb Plot Leader Narseal Batiste Jailed,” BBC, November 20, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8371671.stm (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [67] “FBI Busts ‘Real Deal’ Terror Plot Aimed at NYC–NJ Underground Transit Link,” Fox News, July 7, 2006, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,202518,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [68] Alison Gendar and Bill Hutchinson, “Assem Hammoud, Suspect in Alleged New York Tunnels Plot, Released on Bail in Lebanon,” The Daily News (New York), March 17, 2009, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/us_world/2009/03/17/2009-03-17_assem_hammoud_suspect_in_alleged_new_yor.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [69] “Lebanon: 2-Year Sentence in Plot to Blow Up Hudson River Tunnels,” The New York Times, February 17, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/18/world/middleeast/lebanon-2-year-sentence-in-plot-to-blow-up-hudson-river-tunnels.html (accessed April 12, 2012).

      [70] Rachel Martin, “U.S. Uncovers ‘Advanced’ Bomb Plot U.S. Targeted,” NPR, August 10, 2006, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5632570 (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [72] “3 Accused U.K. Airline ‘Liquid Bomb’ Plotters Found Guilty,” Associated Press, September 8, 2008, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,418643,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [74] Liza Porteus, “Feds Arrest Man They Say Planned to Detonate Grenades in Illinois Shopping Mall,” Fox News, December 9, 2006, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,235518,00.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [75] “35-Year Sentence for Mall Grenade Plotter,” CBS News, September 30, 2008, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/30/national/main4490504.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [77] “Top 9/11 Suspects to Plead Guilty,” BBC, December 8, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7770856.stm (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [79] Jason Ryan and Huma Khan, “In Reversal, Obama Orders Guantanamo Military Trial for 9/11 Mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,” ABC News, April 4, 2011, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/911-mastermind-khalid-sheikh-mohammed-military-commission/story?id=13291750 (accessed May 10, 2011).

      [80] NewsCore, “Court Date Set for Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,” myFox Houston, April 10, 2012, http://www.myfoxhouston.com/dpps/news/khalid-sheikh-mohammed-court-date-dpgonc-20120410-fc_19068360 (accessed April 17, 2012) Luis Martinez, “Pre-Trial Hearings for 9/11 Plotters End With Few Decisions,” ABC News, October 20, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2012/10/pre-trial-hearings-for-911-plotters-end-with-few-decisions/ (accessed June 10, 2013) and “Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 9/11 Hearing Delayed After Refusing to Respond to Judge’s Questions,” New York Daily News, January 28, 2013, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/khalid-sheikh-mohammed-9-11-hearing-delayed-article-1.1249689 (accessed June 10, 2013).

      [81] Dale Russakoff and Dan Eggen, “Six Charged in Plot to Attack Fort Dix,” The Washington Post, May 9, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/08/AR2007050800465.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [83] News release, “Three Brothers Sentenced to Life Prison Terms for Conspiring to Kill U.S. Soldiers,” April 28, 2009, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2009/April/09-nsd-401.html (accessed May 5, 2011), and “Judge Sentences Two More in Ft. Dix Conspiracy,” Los Angeles Times, April 30, 2009, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/apr/30/nation/na-ftdix30 (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [84] Anthony Faiola and Steven Mufson, “N.Y. Airport Target of Plot, Officials Say,” The Washington Post, June 3, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/02/AR2007060200606.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [85] Ibid. “JFK Terror Plot Foiled in Planning Stages,” WNBC (New York), April 12, 2009 and “U.S.: ‘Unthinkable’ Terror Devastation Prevented,” Associated Press, June 3, 2007, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18999503 (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [86] News release, “Russell Defreitas Sentenced to Life in Prison for Conspiring to Commit Terrorist Attack at JFK Airport,” U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York, February 17, 2001, http://www.fbi.gov/newyork/press-releases/2011/russell-defreitas-sentenced-to-life-in-prison-for-conspiring-to-commit-terrorist-attack-at-jfk-airport (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [87] News release, “Imam from Trinidad Convicted of Conspiracy to Launch Terrorist Attack at JFK Airport: Defendant Plotted to Explode Fuel Tanks and Pipeline at Airport,” U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York, May 26, 2011, http://www.justice.gov/usao/nye/pr/2011/2011may26b.html (accessed September 2, 2011).

      [88] Nate Raymond, “Court Upholds Convictions of New York Airport Bomb Plotters,” Reuters, May 31, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/31/us-usa-security-jfk-idUSBRE94U0XO20130531 (accessed June 10, 2013).

      [89] Lloyd de Vries, “Ex-Sailor Accused of Supporting Terrorism,” CBS News, March 8, 2007, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/03/08/terror/main2546508.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011) Mark Spencer, “Hassan Abu-Jihaad, Former U.S. Sailor Who Leaked Navy Secrets Sentenced to Ten Years,” Hartford Courant, April 4, 2009 and “Kareem Ibrahim Sentenced to Life in Prison for Terror Plot to Firebomb JFK,” The Huffington Post, January 14, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/14/kareem-ibrahim-sentenced-to-life-for-jfk-terror-plot_n_1206388.html (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [90] “NY Appeals Court OKs Ex-Sailor’s Terror Conviction,” CBS New York, December 20, 2010, http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2010/12/20/ny-appeals-court-oks-ex-sailors-terror-conviction (accessed September 2, 2011).

      [91] Robert Wielaard, “Court: UK Must Delay Extraditing Britons to US,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 8, 2010, http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9GQSMO00.htm (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [92] News release, “Ohio Man Sentenced to 20 Years for Terrorism Conspiracy to Bomb Targets in Europe and the United States,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, February 26, 2009, http://www.fbi.gov/cincinnati/press-releases/2009/ci022609.htm/ (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [93] Michael Powell, “U.S. Recruit Reveals How Qaeda Trains Foreigners,” The New York Times, July 23, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/24/nyregion/24terror.html (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [94] Sebastian Rotella and Josh Meyer, “U.S.-Born Militant Who Fought for Al Qaeda Is in Custody,” Los Angeles Times, July 23, 2009, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jul/23/nation/na-american-jihad23 (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [95] “Al-Qaida Fighter Possible Witness at NYC Trial,” NPR, April 13, 2012, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=150573613 (accessed April 13, 2012).

      [96] Jonathan Dienst, “FBI, NYPD Arrest 4 in Alleged Plot to Bomb NY Synagogues,” NBC, May 21, 2009, http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/FBI-Bust-Plot-Foiled.html (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [97] Robert Gearty, “Judge Gives Men Convicted in Bronx Synagogue Bomb Plot 25 Years in Prison but Lambasts Government,” The Daily News (New York), June 29, 2011, http://articles.nydailynews.com/2011-06-29/news/29737288_1_james-cromitie-bronx-synagogues-onta-williams (accessed September 2, 2011).

      [99] Joseph Abrams, “Little Rock Shooting Suspect Joins Growing List of Muslim Converts Accused of Targeting U.S.,” Fox News, June 2, 2009, http://www.foxnews.com/story/2009/06/02/little-rock-shooting-suspect-joins-growing-list-muslim-converts-accused/ (accessed June 11, 2013).

      [101] “Man Pleads Guilty to Recruiting Center Killing, Gets Life,” CNN, July 25, 2011, http://www.cnn.com/2011/CRIME/07/25/arkansas.recruiter.shooting/index.html (accessed June 11, 2013).

      [102] Sarah Ovaska, “North Carolina Terror Suspects Allegedly Targeting Quantico Marine Base,” Charlotte Observer, September 25, 2009, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2009/09/25/76069/north-carolina-terror-suspects.html (accessed April 13, 2012).

      [103] Mike Baker, “7 NC Men Charged as International ‘Jihad’ Group,” Associated Press, July 28, 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/8629994 (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [104] News release,” North Carolina Resident Daniel Patrick Boyd Sentenced for Terrorism Violations,” Eastern District of North Carolina, U.S. Attorney’s Office, August 24, 2012, http://www.fbi.gov/charlotte/press-releases/2012/north-carolina-resident-daniel-patrick-boyd-sentenced-for-terrorism-violations (accessed June 10, 2013).

      [106] United States of America Against Najibullah Zazi, “Memorandum of Law in Support of the Government’s Motion for a Permanent Order of Detention,” United States District Court, Eastern District of New York, September 24, 2009, http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/FeaturedDocs/US_v_NajibullahZazi_detentionmemo.pdf (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [107] News release, “Charges Unsealed Against Five Alleged Members of Al-Qaeda Plot to Attack the United States and United Kingdom,” U.S. Department of Justice, July 7, 2010, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2010/July/10-nsd-781.html (accessed September 2, 2011).

      [108] “Additional Charges for Father in NYC Subway Plot,” CBS News, November 30, 2010, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/11/30/national/main7103523.shtml (accessed May 5, 2011).

      [109] “Cousin of Terrorist Admits Role in NYC Subway plot,” USA Today, July 19, 2011, http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-07-18-nyc-terror-plot_n.htm (accessed September 2, 2011).

      [110] Jordana Ossad, “Father of NYC Bomb Plotter Found Guilty of Misleading FBI,” CNN Justice, July 22, 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-07-22/justice/new.york.terror.father_1_mohammed-wali-zazi-najibullah-zazi-naqib-jaji?_s=PM:CRIME (accessed September 2, 2011), and Mosi Secret, “Prison for Father Who Lied About Terror Plot,” The New York Times, February 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/11/nyregion/mohammed-wali-zazi-sentenced-for-lying-about-subway-bomb-plot.html?_r=1 (accessed April 17, 2012).

      [111] Adam Goldman and Tom Hays, “Police: NYC Terror Plotter Zazi Planned with at Least 2 Bombers to Kill Rush-Hour Commuters,” The Chicago Tribune, February 23, 2010.


      Se videoen: Afghanistan, explained: How the US created a history of chaos (November 2021).