Historie Podcasts

Portugisiske styrker i første verdenskrig

Portugisiske styrker i første verdenskrig

Den 7. august 1914 erklærede Portugals præsident de Arriaga sin støtte til de allierede. På dette tidspunkt havde Portugal over 33.000 mand i sin hær. I november 1914 var portugisiske tropper involveret i sammenstød med tyske tropper på grænsen mellem Mozambique og Tysk Østafrika. Dette fremkaldte dog ikke en krigserklæring i fuld skala.

I februar 1916 beordrede den portugisiske regering sin flåde at beslaglægge tyske skibe i dens havne. Tyskland reagerede med at erklære krig mod Portugal. Omkring 100.000 portugisere kæmpede til sidst med de allierede på vestfronten og i Mozambique. Hæren led 21.000 tab, heraf over 7.000 døde.


Det portugisiske imperium

Det Det portugisiske imperium (Portugisisk: Império Português), også kendt som Portugisisk i udlandet (Ultramar Português) eller den Portugisisk kolonirige (Império Colonial Português), var sammensat af de oversøiske kolonier og territorier, der blev styret af Portugal. Et af de længst levede imperier i verdenshistorien, det eksisterede i næsten seks århundreder, fra erobringen af ​​Ceuta i 1415, til overdragelsen af ​​portugisisk Macau til Kina i 1999. Imperiet begyndte i det 15. århundrede og fra begyndelsen af ​​det 16. århundrede århundrede strakte den sig over hele kloden med baser i Nord- og Sydamerika, Afrika og forskellige regioner i Asien og Oceanien. [1] [2] [3]

Det portugisiske imperium opstod i begyndelsen af ​​opdagelsestiden, og Kongeriget Portugals magt og indflydelse ville i sidste ende udvide sig over hele kloden. I kølvandet på Reconquista begyndte portugisiske sejlere at udforske Afrikas kyst og de atlantiske øhav i 1418–19 ved hjælp af den seneste udvikling inden for navigation, kartografi og maritim teknologi som f.eks. Caravel med det formål at finde en søvej til kilden af den lukrative krydderihandel. I 1488 rundede Bartolomeu Dias Cape of Good Hope, og i 1498 nåede Vasco da Gama Indien. I 1500 nåede Pedro Álvares Cabral enten ved et utilsigtet landfald eller ved kronens hemmelige design, hvad der ville være Brasilien.

I løbet af de følgende årtier fortsatte portugisiske søfolk med at udforske kyster og øer i Østasien og etablerede forter og fabrikker, mens de gik. I 1571 forbandt en række flådeposter Lissabon med Nagasaki langs Afrikas kyster, Mellemøsten, Indien og Sydasien. Dette kommercielle netværk og kolonialhandel havde en betydelig positiv indvirkning på portugisisk økonomisk vækst (1500–1800), da det tegnede sig for omkring en femtedel af Portugals indkomst pr. Indbygger.

Da kong Filip II af Spanien (Filip I af Portugal) greb den portugisiske krone i 1580, begyndte der en 60-årig union mellem Spanien og Portugal kendt for efterfølgende historiografi som Den Iberiske Union. Rigerne fortsatte med at have separate forvaltninger. Da kongen af ​​Spanien også var konge af Portugal, blev portugisiske kolonier genstand for angreb fra tre rivaliserende europæiske magter fjendtligt mod Spanien: Den hollandske republik, England og Frankrig. Med sin mindre befolkning fandt Portugal sig ude af stand til effektivt at forsvare sit overstrakte netværk af handelsposter, og imperiet begyndte en lang og gradvis tilbagegang. Til sidst blev Brasilien den mest værdifulde koloni i den anden æra af imperiet (1663-1825), indtil den som en del af den bølge af uafhængighedsbevægelser, der fejede Amerika i begyndelsen af ​​1800 -tallet, brød løs i 1822.

Den tredje æra af imperiet dækker sidste fase af portugisisk kolonialisme efter Brasiliens uafhængighed i 1820'erne. På det tidspunkt var de koloniale besiddelser reduceret til forter og plantager langs den afrikanske kystlinje (udvidet inde i landet under Scramble for Africa i slutningen af ​​det 19. århundrede), portugisisk Timor og enklaver i Indien (portugisisk Indien) og Kina (portugisisk Macau). Det britiske ultimatum fra 1890 førte til sammentrækning af portugisiske ambitioner i Afrika.

Under António Salazar (i embedet 1932–1968) blev Estado Novo diktatur gjorde nogle skæbnesvangre forsøg på at klamre sig til sine sidste tilbageværende kolonier. Under ideologien om Pluricontinentalism omdøbte regimet sine kolonier til "oversøiske provinser", samtidig med at det fastholdt systemet med tvangsarbejde, hvorfra kun en lille indfødt elit normalt var fritaget. I 1961 annekterede Indien Goa og Damaon og Dahomey annekterede fortet São João Baptista de Ajudá. Den portugisiske kolonialkrig i Afrika varede fra 1961 til den sidste styrt af Estado Novo regimet i 1974. Nellikerrevolutionen i april 1974 i Lissabon førte til den hastige afkolonisering af det portugisiske Afrika og til annonceringen af ​​portugisisk Timor i 1975 af Indonesien. Afkolonisering foranledigede udvandring af næsten alle de portugisiske koloniale nybyggere og mange mennesker af blandet race fra kolonierne. Portugal returnerede Macau til Kina i 1999. De eneste oversøiske besiddelser, der var tilbage under portugisisk styre, Azorerne og Madeira, havde begge overvældende portugisiske befolkninger, og Lissabon ændrede efterfølgende deres forfatningsmæssige status fra "oversøiske provinser" til "autonome regioner".


Radical Object: Military Sweetheart Brooches fra første verdenskrig

For flere år siden, da jeg læste nogle dokumenter i Mass Observation Archives ved University of Sussex, stødte jeg på en undersøgelse af London -forhandlere fra 1939, der omtalte stigende krigstidssalg af guld- og diamant 'sweetheart badge broches', et udtryk jeg ikke havde tidligere stødt på. Kort tid efter, som det ofte sker, hørte jeg sætningen igen. På BBC One Antiques Roadshow (11. marts 2011) bemærkede smykkekonsulent John Benjamin, at offentligheden ofte bragte disse brocher til ham for at identificere, men at de sjældent, om nogensinde, vidste, hvad de var eller noget om deres historier. Yderligere forskning afslørede, at mange tusinde af disse brocher blev fremstillet, hovedsageligt i Birmingham og London, fra slutningen af ​​1880'erne til i dag og nåede et højdepunkt i popularitet under første verdenskrig, men alligevel var de stort set forsvundet fra offentlighedens bevidsthed. Der syntes at være et forsømt emne her modent til undersøgelse, og som det viste sig, havde ingen set nøje på disse følelsesmæssige, personlige genstande og de følelser og motivationer, der var inde i dem.

Disse små brocher er miniaturereplikater af mærkerne i militære regimenter, flådeenheder, Royal Flying Corps og RAF, generelt kendt som kæreste -brocher, fordi de ofte blev givet som romantiske erindringer af medlemmer af de væbnede styrker til deres koner og veninder, før de venstre til fronten. En Londoner huskede, at de 'blev modtaget som gaver, kærlighedstegn eller symboler for at vise, at en af ​​dine kære "gjorde deres indsats"' og huskede, at 'næsten enhver kvinde syntes at bære en'. Familierne blev bredt solgt i detail- og smykkeforretninger i hele landet og i små butikker, der blev oprettet i militærlejre, hvor der kunne købes gaver i sidste øjeblik før ombordstigning, og tydeligt formulerede deres støtte til deres mænd, da de forlod en potentielt lang tids adskillelse i krigstid ved iført brocher, der matchede soldaternes insignier. På billedet herunder poserer en meget ung rekrut til Loyal North Lancashire Regiment i sin uberørte nye uniform, inden han tager til udstationering til Frankrig. Hele familien bærer kopier af hans kasketmærke for at støtte ham: hans kone bærer en broche ved kraven på hendes bluse, og selv deres babys dukke er fastgjort med en anden til en længde på bånd.

Soldat ved Loyal North Lancashire Regiment med sin familie (British Library)

Det havde naturligvis længe været sædvanligt for soldater at tilpasse stykker af deres uniformer til mindesmærker, som deres familier kunne bære: metalhalsbånd, skuldertitler og knapper var særlig populære, og der skulle udstedes hærordre for at forhindre øvelsen. Håndlavede genstande, sammen med genstande fremstillet af slagmarkens matériel, som undertiden omfattede smykker, der er bygget af granatsplinter eller kugler, er kendt som skyttegravskunst og ofte inkorporeret insignier fremstillet til formålet: for eksempel kunne soldater købe trykte eller broderede mærker til applikation til nålepuder som gaver. Men det første kopimærke, der kommercielt fremstilles som et smykke til en kvinde at have på, kan spores til en broche i guld, diamant og emalje i form af insignierne fra den 10. kongelige (prins af Wales 'egen) husarer, bestilt af Earl of Airlie som en gave til sin kone Mabell på deres bryllupsdag den 19. januar 1886. Lady Airlie registrerede i sin dagbog, at hun troede, at hun havde startet en ny måde, hun synes at have været korrekt, da ingen tidligere broche er blevet identificeret og af begyndelsen af ​​Første Verdenskrig var der brocher til rådighed for hvert regiment i den britiske hær samt for enheder fra Royal and Merchant flåden og Royal Flying Corps, håndlavet af guldsmed og sølvsmed i den ene ende af det økonomiske spektrum og masseproduceret på fabrikker på den anden side i materialer, der varierer fra messing eller pasta til dyre ædelstene. Deres materielle værdi var dog altid mindre vigtig end deres symbolske og følelsesmæssige evne til at fremkalde mennesker og minder.

The Airlie Broche (1885-1886). Hvidguld, diamant og blå emalje replika insignier af 10. kongelige (Prince of Wales ’s Own) husarer (Billede: Penny Streeter, samling af King ’s Royal Hussars, Tidworth)

Brocheernes synlige og håndgribelige tilstedeværelse i kvindens liv på tværs af alle samfundslag tjente som en stærk forbindelse mellem frontlinjepersonale og civile på hjemmefronten. Men disse markante smykker kommunikerede mere end simpel romantisk hengivenhed og udtrykte følelser om en række sociale og kulturelle temaer, herunder forestillinger om status, samfundssolidaritet og patriotisme. Moderne avisberetninger beskriver, hvordan de blev båret som talismaner i håb om, at de kunne skabe held og lykke og bringe soldaten sikkert hjem og dermed genforene brochen og det originale insignier, der inspirerede den. Fotografier fra perioden skildrer ofte en uniformeret brudgom, der er klar til at forlade fronten, mens på brudens brudekjole kan ses hendes militære kæreste broche, et foruroligende synligt symbol, da det binder det håbefulde par sammen, men også forgrunds den konflikt, som vi forstår vil snart adskille dem, måske permanent. Billeder som disse, taget lige før krigens begyndelse eller i løbet af en kort orlovsperiode var undertiden næsten den eneste rest af hastigt gennemførte krigsægteskaber af så kort varighed, at de kunne se ud, hvis soldaten ikke vendte tilbage og uden endda et lig for begravelse, aldrig at være sket. Mange sådanne fotografier indikerer, at kvinder bar deres brocher som en konstant påmindelse om en savnet ægtemands eller søns fravær, ofte med hans portræt i en medaljon, og at de offentligt demonstrerede deres sorg på denne måde.

George Errall Withall meldte sig til Dronningens (Royal West Surrey) Regiment og blev dræbt i aktion på Festubert i Nordfrankrig den 16. maj 1915. Inden han gik, havde han givet sin kone Annie den kæreste broche, hun bærer, med sit portræt, på dette fotografi :

Annie Gertrude Withall iført sin Queen ’s (Royal West Surrey) Regiment kæreste broche med sine sønner Richard Henry (til venstre) og George Thomas, ca. 1915 (Billede: Penny Streeter)

Inden han meldte sig, var George Withall en gårdarbejder i Frensham, Surrey, og fotografiet viser Annie og hendes to små drenge, George og Richard, sandsynligvis uden for familiens sommerhus. Børnenes alder (George ville have været omkring fem år gammel på tidspunktet for sin fars død og Richard kun tre) tyder på en sandsynlig dato for fotografiet fra 1915. De er alle klædt i deres bedste formelle tøj og at dømme ud fra deres sørgelige udtryk , er det sandsynligt, at dette billede registrerer en tjeneste i Withalls hukommelse. Hans krop blev ikke genoprettet, så i stedet for en skjult grav blev han mindet på le Touret -mindesmærket nær Festubert i 1920'erne. I lighed med millioner af andre kvinder, der blev efterladt som følge af krigen, blev Annie nægtet trøstens ritual ved en begravelse. For efterladte kvinder som Annie, der ikke havde nogen grav at besøge og sætte fokus på for deres minder, blev søde brocher, der blev givet som symboler på kærlighed og hengivenhed, ofte dyrt værdifulde mindeobjekter.

Første verdenskrigs hidtil ukendte dødsfald betød, at mange brocher oprindeligt givet under ganske lykkelige omstændigheder uundgåeligt blev forbundet med sorg som lagre for hukommelse og sorg. Vi skal også huske, at mange soldater var for unge til at have etableret deres egne familier eller ikke havde kærester til at værne om deres hukommelse, mens de var i aktiv tjeneste. For disse normalt yngre mænd var deres mor ofte stadig den mest betydningsfulde kvindelige indflydelse i deres liv, og hun ville dermed få en broche at bære. Årsagerne til, at efterladte kvinder bar de militære brocher, de havde fået i lykkeligere tider, var komplekse og er svære at fjerne. For nogle var brochen et ligetil symbol på stolthed, mens andre mente, at kun en patriotisk fremvisning kunne retfærdiggøre deres tab og bar deres brocher trodsigt. Men mødre, søstre, koner og kærester blev stærkt opmuntret af regeringens propaganda og samfundsmæssige forventninger til at overtale deres mænd til at melde sig og bære en regimentsbroche for at vise, at de havde gjort det og blev dermed medskyldige i deres eget sorg. Hvis kvinder følte vrede over venner og slægtningers død, var dette imidlertid en uacceptabel afvisning af den kodeks for stoisk accept, som de forventedes at følge for at opretholde moralen på hjemmefronten. For mere vrede eller simpelthen ambivalente kvinder i sorg var brocheernes militære konnotationer gribende, uvelkomne påmindelser om årsagen til deres kære død og en grund til at skjule disse minde for deres familier.

Dette kan være en af ​​grundene til, at så mange søde brocher er blevet adskilt fra deres historier. Sørgende mødre, koner og kærester lagde smykkerne til side fra elskede sønner, ægtemænd og kærester, der ikke overlevede krigen, fordi de var præget af så smertefulde minder. For eksempel, lige før krigens slutning, i august 1918, blev Lt. Charles Bodman fra Durham Light Infantry dræbt nær Arras. Hans krop blev aldrig genoprettet, men hæren returnerede hans personlige ejendele, herunder hans fotografier, hans papirer og en kæreste broche, der formodentlig var beregnet til hende, til hans efterladte mor i Gloucestershire. Ude af stand til at overveje disse hjemsøgende påmindelser, lagde hun dem i et trækiste og overlod dem til sin overlevende søn og bad om, at det skulle opbevares sikkert, men ikke åbnes. Æsken blev opbevaret i familiens købmand og først genopdaget i 2015.

Kvinde iført en kæreste broche fra Prince of Wales Own (West Yorkshire) regiment, ca. 1914-1918

Og dermed viser en dybt personlig beslutning om at skjule objekter væk med smertefulde associationer os, hvordan historierne om søde brocher går tabt for os, når disse følelsesmæssige objekter bevæger sig ud over den levende hukommelse. En anden grund til, at de er forsvundet fra den offentlige bevidsthed, er deres status som hybridobjekter. Fra et kuratorisk perspektiv er de hverken officielt militære i design eller simpelthen dekorative. Som sådan er de stort set faldet uden for militære museers opgave og interesse (hvor deres betydning sjældent forklares for den besøgende, hvis de vises). Typisk kommer de ind i museets samlinger som en del af private donationer, der indeholder mere åbenlyst relevante genstande som medaljer, uniformer og våben. Om brocher vises eller marginaliseres afhænger af den betydning, som de enkelte kuratorer (eller deres forvaltere) lægger på forbindelserne mellem styrkernes medlemmer og deres familier, hvilket ikke altid tillægges særlig stor betydning. Men de passer heller ikke let ind i samlingerne af designmuseer, som måske betragter dem som militære genstande, og intet større kulturmuseum i Storbritannien har eksempler. Alligevel formidler badges og emblemer altid, eller i det mindste meget ofte, personlige og politiske budskaber.

Mange er jeg sikker på, at de stadig bevares af deres oprindelige ejers familier. Adgang til genstande ejet af private er altid udfordrende, men ligesom andre krigstidsgenstande er disse fascinerende genstande med historier at fortælle om, hvordan mennesker levede og følte og mindede deres kære i tider med uanede spændinger og øgede følelser. Jeg håber at kunne lave en oversigt over billeder af brocher, dem, der gav dem og dem, der bar dem, med tilhørende historier og eventuel overlevende dokumentation. Hvis nogen læsere gerne vil tilføje deres familiehistorier til denne database, så de ikke går tabt for historien, vil jeg meget gerne høre fra dig. Send mig en e-mail på [email protected]

Denne artikel blev oprindeligt lagt ud på bloggen Historikere for historie i oktober 2018 og genudsendes med venlig tilladelse fra forfatteren og redaktørerne.

Penny Streeter er historiker fra første verdenskrig. Hun blev for nylig tildelt en ph.d. i kunsthistorie af University of Sussex for et doktorgradsprojekt, der udforskede smykker, der replikerede militære mærker, bæret af familier til servicepersonale fra Boer Wars og gennem det 20. århundrede. Hun tweeter som @pennystreeter2.


Cape Colored Corps og første verdenskrig

I september 1915 tilbød EU -regeringen at rejse en infanteribataljon af Kapfarvede mænd til tjeneste i Første Verdenskrig. Der blev besluttet en streng udvælgelsesproces. Kun mænd med en usædvanlig god karakter, mellem 20 og 30 år, minimumshøjde 5 fod. 3in., Brystmåling 33 ½ tommer, ugift og uden pårørende ville blive accepteret til tjeneste. (Difford: 20). Cape Corps War Recruiting Committee blev dannet med hovedsæde i Cape Town. Der blev lagt opslag i pressen, der meddelte, at rekruttering skulle finde sted. Den 25. oktober 1915 åbnede den første rekrutteringsstation på rådhuset i Cape Town. Responsen var så enorm, at politiets bistand var påkrævet for at kontrollere mængden. Kun 22 rekrutter blev hvervet den første dag, da langt de fleste ikke opfyldte de strenge betingelser for hvervning. De blev derefter sendt til Simonstown til træning og fik selskab af rekrutter fra Stellenbosch, Worcester, Port Elizabeth, Kimberley og forskellige missionstationer, herunder Saaron og Mamre.

Antallet af mænd, der blev optaget fra landdistrikter og missionsstationer, var langt under antallet af byen Cape Town, da mange af de rekrutter fra byen ikke opfyldte de strenge fysiske krav. Også mange mænd, der kom for at melde sig på rådhuset, var utilfredse med den tilbudte løn.

Cape Corps i Østafrika

Cape Corps første bataljon begav sig til Østafrika den 9. februar 1916 ombord på H.M.T. Armadale Slot, ankom til Mombasa den 17. februar 1916. I de første ni måneder var bataljonen optaget af opgaver, der støttede de fremrykkende britiske tropper. Dette omfattede bevogtningsbaser, patruljerende veje, brobygning, transportopgaver, hospitalsopgaver og forskellige administrative opgaver. Mange bukkede under for malaria i de første uger af april 1916. 'C' -kompagniet under kommando af kaptajn Bagsawe og to delinger af' D' -kompagni og halvdelen af ​​'B' -kompagni blev sendt for at bevogte Taveta, hvor en jernbanelinje blev undervejs opført og til at bygge blokhuse. Løsningen måtte bevæge sig gennem tunge sumpe i regntiden. Halvtreds procent af løsrivelsen bukkede under for malaria og måtte aflastes af et andet selskab, som til gengæld også kom ned med malaria. I slutningen af ​​april var halvdelen af ​​Cape Corp -bataljonen på hospitalet eller syg på vagt.

Kampagnen ved Rufji -floden

I december 1916 forlod Cape Corps -bataljonen for at deltage i Rufji -flodkampagnen. Under kommando af oberstløjtnant Morris tog bataljonen afsted med fire maskingeværer, en sektion med to kanoner i Kashmir Mountain Battery og en løsrivelse af Faridhkot Sappers and Miners. Hovedformålet med denne kampagne var at krydse Rufji -floden og sikre området på den modsatte bred mod fjendens indgreb. Et daggry bajonetangreb mod den tyske position ved Makalinso blev iværksat med succes.

Da det britiske fremrykning fulgte den tilbagetogende tyske østafrikanske hær, der forsøgte at forsinke fremskridtet ved at stationere et feltkompagni ved Mkindu, blev Cape Corps sendt frem for at forstærke en nigeriansk brigade ved Mkindu. I januar 1917 avancerede en kolonne bestående af Cape Corps, Second Nigeria-regimentet og en to-kanons sektion af Kashmir Mountain Battery-under kommando af Morris frem på den tyske position i Kibongo. Morris brugte Cape Corps som den centrale angrebsstyrke. Den tyske hær under kaptajn Ernst Otto tilbød en bestemt modstand, men blev tvunget til at trække sig tilbage klokken 12.00. På dette tidspunkt gjorde den kraftige regn yderligere militær bevægelse umulig, og mange bærere, medlemmer af det sydafrikanske indfødte arbejdskontingent (SANLC), kæmpede for at levere madrationer gennem tunge sumpe og mudder. Både medlemmer af SANLC og Cape Corps bukkede under for malaria. I marts var kun fem officerer og 165 mand egnede til tjeneste. Mange blev behandlet på militære hospitaler i Østafrika, mens nogle måtte hjemsendes til Sydafrika.

Den næste store militære operation i Cape Corps -bataljonen var at slutte sig til britiske og belgiske tropper mod tyske angrebspartier ledet af kaptajn Max Wintgens, der forsøgte at komme ind i Britisk Østafrika. I oktober 1917 var den tyske trussel elimineret, en bedrift, hvor Cape Corps spillede en stor rolle. Mange medlemmer vandt priser for fornem militær adfærd. I oktober 1917 var bataljonen blevet omorganiseret og styrket antallet til 1 200 og beordret til at hjælpe de slidte britiske tropper i Lindi-området i det tyske Østafrika. I november ledede Cape Corps fremrykningen mod fjenden og kom under kraftig beskydning ved Mkungu. De blev tvunget til at trække sig 50 meter tilbage og gravede ind på en højderyg.

Den næste aktion fandt sted på Makonde -plateauet, hvor et tysk hospital med 1000 syge og sårede overgav sig til en kolonne ledet af Cape Corps. Den tyske kommandant, general Paul von Letow-Vorbeck, bevægede sig med omkring 2000 mand mod portugisisk Østafrika. Efter at have fortsat med oprydningsoperationer blev Cape Corps bataljon undersøgt af et medicinsk nævn. Det blev anbefalet, at de blev hjemsendt til Sydafrika. Selvom deres kampofre ikke var særlig høje, bukkede mange under for malaria. Den 20. december gik bataljonen om bord på HMT Caronia tilbage til Sydafrika.

Fra Østafrika tog Cape Corps til Egypten, Palæstina, Tyrkiet.

Sydafrikanske kanoner i tysk østafrika. kilde: www.delvillewood.com

Tilbage i Sydafrika:

Ved ankomsten tilbage til Sydafrika blev det meddelt, at på grund af deres fremragende militære rekord i Østafrika ville en anden bataljon fra Cape Corps blive rejst til tjeneste i Egypten. Først havde bataljonen brug for lægehjælp og hvile. Inden de sendte mænd hjem i en periode med rekreativt orlov, måtte de gennemgå anstrengende medicinske tests for malaria. To grupper på tre hundrede mænd blev medtaget til Kimberley og Potchefstroom, mens resten af ​​seks hundrede mænd blev sendt til Jacobs Camp i Durban. De skulle forblive i karantæne i ti dage, og først efter at deres blodprøver registrerede et dobbeltnegativ for malaria, fik de lov til at fortsætte hjem i en måneds rekreationsorlov. Dem, hvis blodprøver ikke registrerede negative for malaria, blev behandlet yderligere og sat på specialkost af frisk mælk og æg. Da de kom sig, blev de sendt hjem til en måneds orlov.

Den 20. februar var de fleste mænd tilbage til depotet i Kimberley. I den næste måned var de involveret i uddannelse og forberedelse til den næste fase i deres tjeneste, som skulle være i Egypten. De gennemgik ny uddannelse i skydevåben, signalering og bombning. Lige inden slutningen af ​​marts blev det meddelt, at de ville rejse til Egypten i begyndelsen af ​​april. Bataljonen forlod Kimberley i tre specialtog til Durban den 31. marts. Den 3. april rejste de til Egypten på H.M.T. Magdalena.

Kapkorpset i Egypten

Bataljonen ankom til Port Suez i Egypten den 19. april 1918. Oprindeligt fik de til opgave at eskortere pligt i forskellige krigsfangerlejre. De var også involveret i kommunikationsarbejde. Det var ikke forudset, at de ville være involveret i egentlige kampe, og de var ankommet uden udstyr. Dette forårsagede stor utilfredshed, og deres kommandant, oberstløjtnant Hoy, appellerede til general Edmund Allenby, chef for det britiske imperiums egyptiske ekspeditionsstyrke (EEF), for at tillade dem at deltage i kampene. Med hans anmodning fulgte et detaljeret memorandum, der angav bataljonens rekord i Østafrika. General Allenby inspicerede bataljonen selv og gik med til at lade dem komme i frontlinjen, på betingelse af at de gennemførte yderligere intensiv træning.

Cape Corps maskingevær instruktion. kilde: www.kaiserscross.com

I Egypten stod Cape Corps -enheden overfor et helt andet sæt omstændigheder end i Østafrika. Hæren var langt mere professionelt organiseret, den militære kampagne systematisk og metodisk og hjælpetjenester såsom hospitaler og forsyninger fremragende i forhold til Østafrika. Med Diffords ord: 'Vi havde forladt amatørscenen bag os og var ved at blive professionelle. En periode med intensiv træning blev påbegyndt inden for musketeri, bajonetkampe, brug af håndgranater, gaskrig og skyttegravskrig. Officerer forventedes at være dygtige til kortlæsning og topografi.

I juli 1918 blev den første bataljon Cape Corps (ICC) tildelt 160. infanteribrigade i den 53. walisiske division, en af ​​flere, der udgør EEF under ledelse af general Allenby. Over for EEF stod tre osmanniske hære på 3000 ryttere, 32 000 infanteri og 402 kanoner. ICC trådte ind på linjen den 19. august mod den 53. division i den tyrkiske hær, cirka ti kilometer nord for det, der i dag er Ramallah. Bataljonen stod over for kraftig artilleriild kontinuerligt i den næste måned.

Men of the Ist Battalion, Cape Corps (160. Brigade, 53 Welsh Division)- Palæstina 1918. kilde: www.delvillewood.com

Allenby planlagde en større offensiv at begynde i de tidlige timer den 19. september, og enheden blev beordret til at foretage rekognoscering og øvelser som forberedelse til offensiven ved at udtynde frontlinjerne og koncentrere sig om deres angrebspositioner. Den 1/17 indiske infanteribrigade skulle være forskudsvagt, efterfulgt af ICC. ICC ville passere gennem dem, tage Square Hill og derefter beskytte Brigades højre flanke. Cape Corps lykkedes med deres mål at tage Square Hill i et angreb, der varede fra 18:45 den 18. september til 04:00 den 19. september 1918. De fangede 181 fanger, otte officerer og 160 medlemmer af andre rækker samt en fjendtlig feltpistol. ICC mistede en mand, og en anden blev såret i slaget ved Square Hill. Deres næste handling involverede indtaget af KH Jibeit, en bakke 700 m nord for Square Hill. De havde ikke artilleristøtte og mistede 51 mand, 101 blev såret, og en blev taget til fange. Disse handlinger var afgørende for at bane vejen for Allenby for at bryde igennem til Damaskus og 'slå det osmanniske imperium ud af krigen'.

Kirkeparade for 1. bataljon, Cape Corps, ved El Arish, Egypten, efter slaget. kilde: samilitaryhistory.org


Andre aspekter af det lokale liv ↑

Som i andre stridende nationer gjorde inflationen det nødvendigt at øge lønningerne på Macau's lokale markeder havde ikke varer nok, men andre aspekter af økonomien og finanserne blev opretholdt uden væsentlige ændringer. Lokale myndigheder tilbød 30.000 pund til "Moderens hjemland", især for at hjælpe hospitaler og soldaters familier. For at overvinde elevernes manglende evne til at rejse til Portugal implementerede det lokale gymnasium et højere uddannelsesniveau.


De fleste af kampene under første verdenskrig fandt sted i Europa, og villigt eller ej var befolkningen i de fleste lande på en eller anden måde aktiv i konflikten. For de allierede tjente 5 millioner britiske mænd i konflikten, knap halvdelen af ​​den tilgængelige pulje af mænd i alderen 18-51 7,9 millioner franske borgere blev kaldt til at tjene.

I alt 13 millioner tyske borgere kæmpede i krigen mellem 1914 og 1918. I de besatte områder tvang Tyskland og dets allierede også civile til at arbejde: borgere fra Italien, Albanien, Montenegro, Serbien, Rumænien og russisk Polen havde alle værnepligtige kæmper eller hjælper med Entente -indsatsen.


Syvårskrigen: Første verdenskrig?

Selv fra den tidligste historiske beretning om organiseret krigsførelse var der to slags krige, der formede historien for evigt krige, der ændrer og former en nation og krige, der ændrer og former verden. I juli 1914 brød krig ud i Europa, hvilket resulterede i en multi-teater- og multideltagerkrig af massiv andel, der førte til godt fire års kamp, ​​der fik titlen Første Verdenskrig, som den for altid vil forblive. Dette var imidlertid ikke den første multideltagerkrig, der blev udkæmpet om flere regioner, hvis virkninger kunne mærkes rundt om i verden. Syvårskrigen, der fandt sted hundrede og tres år før Første Verdenskrig, strakte sig over hele kloden i ni års kamp, ​​og engagerede femten militærer i kamp, ​​der ikke sluttede før i 1763 med underskrivelsen af ​​fire fredsaftaler. Dette har fået mange historikere til at stille spørgsmålstegn ved, om det faktisk ikke er den allerførste verdenskrig, og i så fald hvordan verden havde overset en konflikt af en sådan størrelse.

Syvårskrigen var ikke lille på nogen måde, men derimod ekstremt stor i omfang og område, der var dækket under krigen. Mange genkender imidlertid ikke Syvårskrigen endnu, de genkender de syv separate krige, der blev udkæmpet inden for syvårskrigen i forskellige regioner rundt om i verden. Som i første verdenskrig spredte de teatre, hvor krigen blev udkæmpet, sig over hele kloden i løbet af de ni års uro og påvirkede en hidtil uset mængde regioner. 1 Dette er et resultat af modstridende dominans og alliancer i forskellige lande, der har kastet krigsførere ind i nogle af de mest berygtede krige, verden nogensinde har lært at kende.

Den første af en række krige, som syvårskrigen udgør, var den franske og indiske krig, også kendt af mange som erobringskrigen, udkæmpet i Nordamerika mellem 1754 og 1763. 2 Kamp mellem de respektive britiske og franske kolonier bosatte sig i regionen og støttes af deres forældremilitærer samt Frankrigs allierede indianerne, da begge sider håbede at kræve dominans over regionen for deres sider. 3 I 1750'erne var meget af landet øst for Mississippi -floden domineret af de franske og britiske nybyggere, der var kommet til kontinentet for at leve. 4 The British settlers, largely outnumbering that of the French, dominated the coat which the French greatly dispersed their settlers in the northern and central regions with some settlement in the south. This left the region in between the two settlements to be dominated by the Native Americans of the land. 5 As the British hoped to expand their influence over greater amounts of land, they granted settlement to a hundred families in the Ohio Valley region that France had already laid claim to in order to establish trade posts within the region smudging their borders and causing conflict between the two settlements. 6

In a series of battles for control of the continent, the French enlisted both its settlers and its allies the Native Americans to fight the British over the next nine years. This proved to have dire consequences on the British’s ability to secure victory over their adversaries fortunately for the British, they possessed strength in numbers and training that the French could not overcome. 7 With their superior equipped army, the British made a bold move and captured Fort Duquense from the French and renamed it after their Prime Minister William Pitt the British victory causing the Native Americans to begin to take sides with the opposing adversaries. 8 After this crucial victory, the British forces rallied toward Quebec where they secure yet another victory, this being a massive blow to the French. Finally, in 1760, the British took control of Montreal and the French were unable to recover losing the North American theater of the Seven Years’ War and ending with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763. 9

Though it is true that throughout the course of the war, the British and the French were engaged in battle in the North American Region east of the Mississippi, the Seven Years’ War extended to regions other then that covered by the British and French in the French and Indian War. The Seven Years’ war was also largely fought in the European theater with numerous battles in Spain, Portugal, Britain, Sweden, Prussia, and Austria. The earliest battles to form part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe was the Third Silesian War between Prussia and Austria.

The Third Silesian War was a series of battles connected to the Seven Years’ War involving Austria and Prussia from 1756 to 1762 as the two countries fought to secure Silesia from one another. Since 1740, the Austrians had been engaged in war with the Prussians in an attempt to recapture the province of Silesia from he reign of Frederick the Great. 10 Within the last two wars, this had been unachievable, yet Austria persisted, all the while, Prussia, under the leadership of Frederick II grew strong militarily and pushed back as the Austrians struggled to secure a decisive victory over the strong army. 11 This time, while Frederick pursued Saxony, the Austrians decided to attack once more in an attempt to once more reclaim the region. 11 Yet, as Austria’s ties to Britain were severely injured by the previous wars, the British began to switch their alliance to the Prussians, leaving Austria weaker in the battle yet, Russia still remained at Austria’s side. In the resulting years, the Austrian and Russians gained favor within the war, however, after the death of Russian Empress Elizabeth in 1763, Russian forces were recalled by the newly crowned Peter III and Peter sought to make concessions to Prussia which would prove detrimental to the Austrian war effort. 12 Within the year, the Austrians were forced to enter peace talks with the Prussians and the war ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Hubertusburg. 13

A year after fighting began in the Third Silesian War began between Prussia and Austria, Prussia entered another war in the European theater that would be forever recognized as part of the Seven Years’ War. This time the fighting would take place in several regions of Swedish and Prussian Pomerania between 1757 and would not end until six years later in 1763, leaving Prussia to face war against Sweden. 14 In 1757, the Swedish force made their way into Prussian Pomeranian territory yet were forced to retreat and faced a year long blockade at Stralsund until their Russian allies could relieve them. 15 As they began to once again gain more strength, the Swedish forces pushed forward into the Prussian territory, successfully destroying a Prussian fleet in the process which allowed them to advance as far as the Prussian territory of Prenzlau by 1760 only to retreat back to their own safe camps of Swedish Pomerania for the winter. 16

As the Swedish began yet another campaign the following summer, both armies struggled to gain an advantage over another and the Swedish army immense supply shortages that put their army at a greater disadvantage in 1761. 17 In the winter months of 1761 and 1762, the Swedish and Prussians met up once again for battle, this time just over the Swedish Pomerania border in Mecklenburg where they would engage in their last fight of the Pomeranian war before the Treaty of Ribnitz was agreed upon and signed in August 1762. 18 At this time, the Russians, their alliances waning ever so greatly, switched their loyalty over to the the side of the Prussians and it was clear to the Swedish that they would no longer have the strength to pursue and defeat the Prussian army. 19

As the Seven Years’ War pressed on, war also ensued in Spain as well as Portugal in what is known as the Spanish-Portuguese War from 1761 to 1763. Before this time, Spain and Portugal had succeeded to stay fairly neutral in the Seven Years’ War and, although they had had their own differences about their territories within South America at the time, all remained peaceful until the year of 1761, as Charles III ascended to the throne of Spain, bringing with him his fervent desire to maintain a strong empire for Spain. 20 This, however, threatened the Portuguese borders in the South American colonies as they had previously been agreed to in treaties signed with the former Spanish ruler, King Ferdinand VI, throwing the two countries into war. 21 As the British began to win the war in the colonies against the French, it became ever clearer that the rising power of Britain would soon threaten the imperial balance across Europe thus, prompting the Spanish to seek an alliance with the French making the countries stronger and angering the British who would, in response, joined the fight in 1762, just one year after it had commenced. 22

Under the advisement of the French, the Spanish-Portuguese War pressed on with the Spanish attacking the borders of the neutral Portuguese whose army was less than capable of taking the assault. 23 As it was known that Portugal had become an ally of the British, the French hoped to divert some of the force from the North American theater with hopes of gaining an advantage in the French and Indian War. 24 The fighting not only extended to the borders of Spain and Portugal, but also to the provinces possessed by the Portuguese in South America, something that the Portuguese had feared would happen as Charles III of Spain had assumed reign over the country in 1761. 25 The war heightened as the dominating Spanish army stormed and captured the Colonia de Sacramento, a region in Portuguese control. 26 The war did not see its end until the end of the Seven Years’ War when finally the British and French signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763, extending peace to their allies in Spain and Portugal and the previous Treaty of Madrid was once again in place, leaving Spain and Portugal in peace and neutrality once more. 27

As an extension of the Spanish-Portuguese War, the British and Spanish were engaged in the Anglo-Spanish War as well until 1763. This was a result of the Spanish attacks on the Britain’s ally, the Portuguese and caused the British to divide their forces between the American colonies where they were engaged in war with France and Portugal, where they would send over five thousand troops to attempt to thwart the Spanish aggression against the Portuguese. 28 While the Spanish were engaged in the battle in Portugal, the British turned their attention to Spanish territories that they could attack and made their way toward the shores of Havana, Cuba. In the raid against Cuba in August 1762, the British took the Western Cuban region and captured as many a fourteen ships of the Spanish Caribbean Fleet. 29 Furthermore, the British did not stop at merely Cuba, but decided to attack Spanish claimed territory in the Philippines as they took Manila for their own, cutting Spain off from their capital cities in the West and East Indies. 30 The Spanish gained some success against the British in South America in 1762 as the British unsuccessfully attempted to attack a Spanish coastal outpost, only to be sunk just off shore. This, however, did not give Spain the complete advantage after numerous devastating blows from the British within Portugal as well as in their satellite territories around the world, leading to the success of the British and the end of the war in 1763, just as the Spanish-Portuguese War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris between the British and French. 31

The Seven Year’s War was undoubtedly fought largely within the European theater, however, the war was one of global proportion and was fought on several other continents as well. By 1757, the war was to include a new territory on the Asian continent, as the Third Carnatic War between British and French East India Companies shook the divided lands of India in a power struggle for imperial control. South India had faced much hardship since 1744 as small independent nations struggled to maintain sovereignty throughout their region from the increasing powers of the French India Company and the British India Company who both sought influence over the land. 32 Further still, the British and French tensions rose as dominance over the trade economy within the area became more important and battle ensued. 33 The conflict was heightened further still as the native leaders struggled amongst themselves as well as the French and British to solidify their borders for themselves. 34

In the third series of battles, deemed the Third Carnatic War that laster from 1757 to 1763, the British and French once again saw the importance of their positions in India as their influence was threatened by the French and Indian War on the North American continent. 35 This left the both the French and British in a precarious position, just as the war between the Spanish and Portuguese in Portugal and South America would just five years later. If the French were to compel the British to deploy forces to the Indian territory, they would then have far less resources and personnel expendable for the war over the colonies in and around the Ohio Valley in North America and the French might have a better chance of meeting the Britain’s force with their own and gain an advantage. This, however, would also do the same to France’s expendable amounts of resources as they too would be compelled to engage in a war in on the Indian subcontinent, deploying numerous men and resources in order to defeat the Britain’s force.

In 1757, Britain pushed the conflict into Bengal where they would achieve success in capturing the French territory of Chandernagore. 36 This was not the decisive victory in the war, however, and the fighting moved back into Southern India where the British were gaining an advantage over the French. In 1760, the French under the command of the Comte de Lally, were decisively defeated by the British in the Southern province of the Indian territory. 37 Within the next year, the French were losing all hope of withstanding the war and securing a victory as the British further gained advantage on their weakening state and seized their capitol city of Pondicherry. It was clear that the French had lost the fight in India, yet the fighting continued just as all the corresponding conflicts of the Seven Years’ War involving France and Britain with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763. 38

It was clear that the Seven Years’ War had reached nearly every continent across the globe and its numerous participants were torn between the expansive battlefronts as resources and personnel were divided in an effort to support and combat the ever growing war effort and tension between the leading forces of the age. The war also gave birth to the dividing and aligning of numerous nations as tensions brought forth by imperialism and dominant influence that were heightened by the extended land grab efforts made primarily by countries such as Spain, France, and Britain that were the leading forces within the global market in regard to trade and settlement abroad. Some, however, have contended that even though the Seven Years’ War reached many different theaters across the globe, affected numerous nations, and ended in not one, but four consequential treaties the Seven Years’ War has not, and will not, be considered the first world war because it was not what is called a “total war” and that this is a defining factor of a world war.

The term “total war” refers to a war that includes every and all aspect of private infrastructure and man power in order to mobilize for a war. A total war would extend this burden on private infrastructure and production to not only one or two countries, but across the globe to the point that the world’s economy would be affected by the mobilization and continued supply effort before the war. This can be seen during the First World War as the Triple Entente and their corresponding allies as well as the Triple Alliance worked toward best supplying their troops overseas and at home for four years of vigorous warfare. In the United States, this can be seen as the country struggled to mobilize to its best ability. It was not until the end of the war that the production of the nation’s infrastructure was to an adequate level yet, the war did work toward an exemplary ratification of wartime production, supply, and consumption.

In the United States, just as abroad, total war takes over many aspects of the national economy as they work toward a most efficient army on every front. Civilian food supply is rationed, and great lengths are taken to ensure that resources, especially those imported from countries that are engaged in the war are supplemented to their best abilities. In the First World War, the United States government went as far as to virtually take over the wool industry within the entire United States in order to ensure that the troops within the war were not faced with a shortage of uniforms. 39 This has become a well known standard of a world war for historians with the modern era.

The Seven Years’ War was a defining series of wars during the time of imperialism and growing influence as empires expanded their reaches to every corner of the globe. The infamous war lasted not seven, but nine years and included more than seven independent wars within regions from the Americas, the Caribbean, Asia, and Northern, Central, and Southern Europe, ending in four peace treaties which would include existing and newly solidified borders and alliances for each of the involved countries.

The theaters in which the fighting took place were war torn and exhausted of resources as the war came to an end in 1763. The two most incorporated nations within the battles were the British and French as they engaged in five simultaneous wars during the nearly decade of fighting, the battlefields spread from Asia to Europe and across the Atlantic to the American continents. The most decisive war in which they fought throughout the years was the French and Indian War in North American which was the first to ensue and determined their ability and willingness to engage in fighting in other theaters during the Seven Years’ War. In fact, France’s difficulty in the French and Indian War lead to their support of their allies, the Spanish as they pursued their adversaries during the Spanish-Porteguese War beginning in 1761 and their presence within the Indian subcontinent where they competed against the British for trade dominance and influence. Northern Europe was also torn at the time by the Seven Years’ war as Prussia’s Frederick II actively pursued dominance within his own region, bringing forth conflict between his nation, Austria, and Sweden as well as forming an alliance with Russia at the end of the war. The dramatic and long lasting implications of the Seven Years’ War proves that regardless of whether or not a “total war” is achieved, the massive war was in fact the first true world war.


Deconstructing the traditional narrative on the 1919 Revolution

In March 2019, Hakim Abdelnaeem published an article in Maha Masr titled “What is the first thing that pops to your mind when 1919 Revolution is mentioned?” The article is a thoughtful analysis of the popular imagination of the 1919 Revolution, and Abdelnaeem concludes that this imagination is primarily a visual one, shaped by film and TV series. He also argues that this visual imagination locates the revolution in the city, primarily in Cairo, and reduces the revolution to a series of demonstrations protesting against the arrest of Saad and his colleagues, and culminates in the army opening fire on the demonstrators on 10 March. Then there are of course the cliché images of upper-class women participating in the demonstrators and Coptic and Muslim clerics holding hands. Absent from this popular imagination, Abdelnaeem argues, are scenes of the workers strikes in urban centers and the peasant uprisings throughout the country, in the Delta and al-Said.

Fahmy’s death in “Bayn al-Qasrayn”, Hasan al-Imam, dir., 1964

Relying on the scholarship of Hakim Abdelnaeem, Kyle Anderson and Ali Mossallam, in this article I tried to point out to recent research that beseeches us to locate the origins of the Revolution not on March 9, 1919, when Saad was arrested, but in a much earlier period, in the summer and autumn of 1918, and not to restrict the Revolution to Cairo and other cities, but to look for the origins in the countryside among peasants who saw their livelihoods destroyed after four years of war. This was a war in which, as the Arabic saying goes, they neither had a camel or a she-camel لا ناقة ولا جمل, but a war to which they were dragged to serve for years on end losing in it limb and life.

The sacrifices endured during the First World by Egyptian peasants, by far the overwhelming majority of the population, are what lay behind the 1919 Revolution. A key factor in this hardship was being “volunterred” in the Egyptian Labour Force. Hundreds of thousands of Egyptian men were dragged into serving in this dreaded force as part of the British imperial war effort. The months they spent in the different fields of operation, in Mesopotamia, Palestine, Gallipoli and the Western Front, hardened them and threw the injustice they suffered from back home into sharp relief. While most were eager to return to the comfort of their loved ones, few must have also been radicalized on the Front. Upon returning home, and upon finding that their compatriots had fared only slightly better due to what al-sulta had subjected them to, the situation was then rife for a nationwide revolution to erupt.

The facebook page of the spokesman of the Armed Forces, 11 November 2013

However, the present Egyptian army is now making preposterous claims that distort the historical record. By relying on a charlatan, it has convinced itself that the Egyptian Labor Force was composed of soldiers not of peasants, that this force was part of the Egyptian not the British army, and that the sacrifices endured during the war were endured by the military rather by the civilian population. Behind these claims is not the desire to point out a long forgotten chapter in the nation’s history or to uphold the right of the Egyptian people to live in peace and dignity, but rather and as the army spokesman himself admitted to have the opportunity to “raise the Egyptian flag in London and in Greece next to the mightiest armies of the world.”

The army can have its flags and it can have its cheap photo ops. But snatching the 1919 Revolution from us, just as it has robbed us of the 2011 Revolution, is something that should not and will not pass.

You can watch a video recording of this lecture below (the lecture starts at 2:45:00)


K is for… Knitting

All kinds of knitwear were sent in quantity to the men at the front. Women sent articles directly to their loved ones, but they also knitted (from around the world) for organisations such as Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild, which in turn sent on the socks (718,388 pairs), balaclava helmets, mittens and many other articles it received. The beneficiaries included not only men on active service, but also their families, the wounded, refugees, prisoners of war (PoWs) and even civilians who had lost their jobs as a result of the war.

Surviving letters of thanks reveal how gratefully received these comforts often were. However, it was not always a chorus of approval. One officer in 1914 complained in a letter that “bales” of well-intended knitwear were jamming up the postal system, and took a dim view of the “heel-less sock”. Stockings without heels figured largely among the knitted garments needed in hospitals. They were especially wide to allow room for splints and bandages, and pattern booklets for such hospital garments were readily available, including items ranging from bath gloves to eye bandages.


Attitudes To The First World War History Essay

Attitudes to World War 1 (WW1) known as 'The Great War' changed throughout the duration of the conflict. At the outbreak of war the general attitude to the war was positive the British public had feelings of euphoria. Despite objection from conscientious objectors, support for the war remained relatively high through out, however the positive attitude of the British people soon began to dwindle. There were several reasons for this, such as the increasing number of casualties, and the reality of trench welfare. The government attempted to intervene through propaganda, and rationing systems in order to maintain positive public opinions and ensure supply of production and men to the front line.

Initial attitudes to the war were positive. British government justified their participation in the war as a moral obligation ‘its pledge to Belgium and its duty to destroy Prussianism in a war to end war’ [i] Britain decided to aid Belgium and France and declared war on Germany. The declaration of the war was greeted by most with enthusiasm and jingoism. British people had not experienced anything on this scale for over a century. The public felt a 'mixture of fear, curiosity and anticipation, spurred by the realisation that this was a struggle for national preservation' [ii] A joyous mood swept over Britain as they began gearing in support of the war, there were street celebrations throughout the whole of Britain as they rejoiced in the nationalism and pride the war would bring unaware that it would take the lives of over 700,000 British Soldiers. The British people believed the war was going to be short crusade and that it would all ‘be over by Christmas’ as they believed that victory against Germany was a certainty. Young soldiers saw the war as an adventure, they were eager and determined to show their bravery and devotion to their country, unaware of the horrors which faced them believing it would be a romantic heroic affair. Positive attitudes to the war at the outbreak is apparent due to the number of volunteers that enlisted, 'recruiting figures ran at 300,000 in August, 450,000 in September, 137,000 in October, 170,000 in November, 117,000 in December and 156,000 in January 1915’ [iii] Much of this motivation is believed to be the result of government propaganda. Prime Minister Asquith said ' no nation has ever entered a great conflict with clearer conscience or stronger conviction to defend principles vital to the civilized world’. Soldiers were made to believe that Germany posed a threat to British interests.

During the First World War Propaganda in many different forms were used by government to influence the attitudes and public opinion of the British People and to ensure that people knew only what they wanted them to. With only a small army at the start of the war the government attempted to use propaganda to gain support for the war and increase recruitment into the Army from volunteers. Media-enhanced propaganda was one of the most influential forms of shaping public opinion. The government used Poster campaigns throughout the war, they were used to appeal to patriotism and to honour and showed picture of soldiers, woman and children in order to conjure up support for the war. It was important that the government got more men to enlist, as the number of deaths and causalities increased, they instilled a sense of duty into the nation with slogans saying 'your country needs you' which led to the recruitment of many patriotic men. Huge efforts were also made to blacken the enemies name in order to twist peoples thoughts and viewpoints towards the war and create a hatred and suspicion that would encourage them to sign up for example newspapers printed headlines that would stir emotions and write stories about German atrocities, this led British soldiers to believe that the war was worth fighting for. Propaganda was used to maintain high spirits and morale on the home front. Public opinion also had to remain positive following the appalling casualties of the young soldiers as the war progressed. All forms of information was controlled and censored by the government including newspapers and soldiers letters. The government realized that they needed the support of the people in order to win the war. Often newspapers report information only beneficial to Britain in order to keep public opinion in support of the war. They would fabricate the number of British deaths or write only of the deaths of the enemies. British successes were emphasized whilst minimal gains were omitted from their information this led British people to believe the conflict was benefiting them. Propaganda was aimed at woman as they aimed to show that everyone was part of the war despite being excused for military services, and give them a sense of importance. They produced posters with slogans on posters such as 'Woman of Britain say GO'. Men were encouraged to sign up as they would be seen as masculine and courageous by the woman. If they did not sign up they were made to feel guilty and shameful as woman ridiculed them by giving men out of uniform white feathers which was a sign of cowardice, this was a successful method of pressuring many able men to enlist with the army. ,

However this positive attitude to war was not unanimous by everyone. Conscientious objectors (COs’) made it clear that not everyone had a positive attitude towards the war. COs’ were mainly middle class people rather than working class people. There was several types of conscientious objectors pacifists who refused to have any participation in the war, political objectors who did not consider the Germans their enemy and religious objectors such as ‘Quakers’ who felt that war and fighting was against their religion, Bert Brocklesby said ‘God did not put me on this earth to destroy his children’ [iv] . However many COs’ joined the Non-Combatant Corps where they did not have to fight but did jobs such as acting as stretcher-bearers for those who did. Following the increasing numbers of casualties in the early stages of the war conscription for British men was looking likely Pacifists campaigned successfully for a 'conscientious clause' which freed them from military service following the assessment of their claims at a tribunal, however only 16,000 COs’ refused conscription and therefore remained a small minority as they compromised ‘only 0.33 per cent of the total conscripts plus volunteers’ [v] . Many woman became active in public affairs setting up to campaign against the war, as they were excused from military services they could not be accused of being cowards, they set up groups such as the Women’s International League (WIL) however they had very little influence. Although they did not express the same feelings of jingoism as the majority of the British public, by the end of the first month of the war opposition to the conflict had declined and most decided to back government’s effort as they realized that war was necessary.

As the war progressed positive attitudes to the war were not always maintained as war weariness and opposition to the war began to grow. It was difficult for the government to maintain a positive public opinion once the reality of modern welfare became apparent. The Liberals were worried that once positive attitudes to the war began to wear off pacifist campaign may gain support from the British people. Soldiers who had initially excited to go to war quickly changed their attitudes once trench welfare set it. The devastation of the soldiers became apparent to the public back home through their poems and letters they expressed the horror that the young soldiers faced on a daily basis, British citizens were beginning to realise the reality of war for the first time, causing the public to have a more negative attitude of the war. Battles such as Ypres and Somme led to a large number of casualties, and voluntary recruitment had begun to dwindle by 1916, as people began to realize that this was not going to be a quick victory. Instead of excitement they were now eager for the war to come to an end as soon as possible. Shortages of men in the military caused the generals to appeal for conscription, and in 1916 the government eventually opted for it. This meant that all men ages 18-40 had to serve your country in the military for a certain period of time this had a huge impact on attitudes and morale to the war. Older men were pushed into the front line but did not share the same enthusiasm for the war as the young soldiers and the number of men refusing conscription increased. Inflation and Rationing systems introduced in 1917 also impacted on the attitude of the British people on the home front. The Defence of Realm Act (DORA) was used to ensure that food shortages did not occur in Britain as a result of Germany’s U-boat campaign to sink merchant ships in order to prevent the flow of imports entering Britain. Panic buying had also led to shortages and Inflation also meant that food prices increased, this meant that many working class families faced malnutrition by the end of the war causing negative attitudes towards the war.

The impact of the continual hardship faced by the British people on the home front led to civil unrest. Shortages began to occur to a short of male workers as more men were conscripted into the war, skilled workers in key industries such as engineering, mining and steel joined the armed forces. Female workers stepped in to fill the positions that previously only men had vacated, working in dangerous conditions in industrial factories producing weapons for the soldiers. The number of woman who agreed to work in these conditions shows the popular support for the war effort by the majority of British citizens at the beginning. However those who had been brought in to fill the gaps soon ‘realised that they were being exploited by government, who were making high profits.’ [vi] Trade union membership increased from 4 million to 6.5 million by the end of the war. There was a trade union agreement that meant that woman would only be employed during the war to ensure that men had jobs to come home to. The government knew that they had to maintain Britain’s economic strength. Lloyd George had to try and persuade leading trade unions to come to a truce in order to relax its ‘restrictive practices’ in industries vital for the war. many of the strikes which broke out during the war however they were quickly settled, and trade unions decided to postpone their demands until after the conflict had ended and turned their support towards helping government, in some cases even giving payments to their members, as they were worried that the war would lead to unemployment. Business owners were also encouraged by the government to pay unskilled workers higher wages as they did not want to hinder production. This shows that the British population knew that they must unite in order to win the war. Keir Hardie wrote ‘a nation at war must be united… With the boom of the enemy’s guns within earshot the lads that have gone forth to fight for their country’s battles must not be disheartened by any discordant note at home’ [vii]

British Soldiers on the front line were also finding it difficult to maintain a positive attitude. Young men enlisted in the Army for different reasons whilst some were forced into joining due to conscription, many had volunteered through loyalty to their country and felt they had to protect their country others were prompted by the unemployment. It can be said that they were ignorant to the horrors that life of the front line held for them. As the war progressed many soldiers began to suffer the misery of trench welfare. There are many written documents by WW1 soldiers such as ‘Goodbye to all that’ by Robert Graves or ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’ by Erich von Remarque. Documents such as these highlight the horrific experiences endured by the British soldiers. The war caused many soldiers to be alienated from home they had to witness horrifying sights which often resulted in psychological trauma such as shell shock ‘Between 1914 and 1918 the British Army identified 80,000 men (2% of those who saw active service) as suffering from shell-shock’ [viii] . Soldiers had to put up with rats and lice and were forced to witness killing and bombing so regularly that many of them had to disregard their feelings.

By the end of the war nearly everyone across Europe had a negative attitude towards the war. The war had brought many people suffering, and had negatively shaped public opinion. Amnesty day brought about rejoice that the war had finally ended the nation was ready to celebrate the return of the soldiers, which showed that they remained faithful to the cause throughout. However the memories of the war remained strong with the British people who were unhappy with the little gains that had come out of their struggles. Prime Minister Lloyd George declared his intention 'to make Britain a fit country for heroes to live in' [ix] . However the British people wanted more from their efforts and demanded that Germany take full responsibility for the war, this led Lloyd George to campaign for indemnities for the total cost of the war from Germany in order to show the British People that the War was not for nothing.

In conclusion attitudes towards the war did not stay positive throughout, at the outbreak of war the public had a positive attitude towards the war, they were full of excitement and determination, however as the conflict continued the public opinion changed to a more negative outlook. Increasing casualties and short supplies of food caused to British population to become disheartened and they simply wished for the conflict to come to an end. The government was forced to take action in order to sway the public to have a more positive attitude in order to supply soldiers to the front line they did this through various forms of propaganda. Soldiers had believed that the war was going to be a short, exciting experience, however once the reality of the horror of the war sunk in, the attitude of the soldiers soon changed, many felt isolated and alienated, and others experience physical and mental torture. However through poems and letters written by the soldiers, the horrors of trench life got back to the British people at home. After this public remained negative to the end, and even after the war attitudes towards the war remained unfavourable as the nation remained hurt over the lack of results for their struggles.


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