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Belejring af Dibalpur, midten af ​​januar 1524

Belejring af Dibalpur, midten af ​​januar 1524


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Belejring af Dibalpur, midten af ​​januar 1524

Belejringen af ​​Dibalpur (moderne Dipalpur) i januar 1524 var den anden og sidste militære succes under Baburs fjerde ekspedition til Indien, der kom efter hans sejr i Lahore tidligere på måneden. Babur havde ikke forventet at kæmpe ved Lahore, som havde været domænet for Daulat Khan, men Daulat var blevet afsat af Ibrahim Lodi, sultanen i Delhi. Babur blev tvunget til at kæmpe en kamp uden for byen og vandt sin første sejr over en hær fra Delhi. Efter at have erobret byen vendte han derefter mod sydvest for at angribe Dibalpur.

I 1524 blev Dibalpur omgivet af en 25 meter høj mur, selv omgivet af en dyb grøft, der mindst dateres tilbage til det fjortende århundredes regeringstid for Firoz Shah Tughluq (sultan fra 1351 til 1388). På trods af denne befæstning var Babur i stand til at erobre byen ved overfald og satte garnisonen i sværd.

Først efter faldet i Dibalpur fik Babur følgeskab af sin indiske allierede Daulat Khan, den afsatte guvernør i Lahore. Daulat forventede klart, at Babur ville genoprette Lahore for ham, men i stedet gav Babur ham Jalandhar og Sultanpur. På dette stadium indså Daulat, at Babur ikke ville være den smidige allierede, han havde håbet på, og han udklækkede et plot for at dele Baburs hær og besejre den i detaljer. Dette plot blev forrådt til Babur af Daulats søn Dilawar. Daulat blev anholdt og afsat, og hans jord blev givet til Dilawar. Babur udnævnte derefter guvernører til sine nye erobringer og vendte tilbage til Kabul for at rejse en større hær.


Maine History tidslinje

Tidlige Maine -beboere er kendt som & quotRed Paint & quot; folk på grund af det røde ler, de bruger til at beklæde deres dødes grave. De følges af Susquehanna -kulturen, som er den første til at bruge keramik.

Maines to tidligste indianske nationer er Micmac, i det østlige Maine og Abenaki. Disse stammer flytter ofte flere gange hvert år efter madforsyningen. Om foråret fisker de i floderne og planter majs, squash og bønner langs floderne. Om vintrene vove de sig dybt ind i skovene i Maine for at jagte vildt.

Da europæerne ankommer til regionen, bor Passamaquoddy og Penobscots også i området.

Maine, den største af de seks New England -stater, ligger i det nordøstlige hjørne af landet. Maine blev den 23. stat den 15. marts 1820 som en del af Missouri -kompromiset, som tillod Missouri at komme ind i unionen som en slavestat og Maine som en fri stat. Maine er afgrænset af de canadiske provinser Quebec og New Brunswick og af New Hampshire.

16. århundrede Maine History tidslinje

1524 - Giovanni da Verranzano blev den første bekræftede europæer til at udforske Maines kyst.

1597 - Simon Ferdinando, en portugisisk navigator, der arbejder for den britiske krone, lander på Maine -kysten og leder efter skatte.

17. århundrede Maine History tidslinje

1604 - Et fransk beredskab ledet af Pierre du Guast Sieur de Monts etablerer den første registrerede europæiske koloni i Maine ved mundingen af ​​St. Croix -floden.

1604-1605 - Den franske kartograf Samuel de Champlain udforsker og kortlægger dele af Maine -kysten og Penobscot -floden.

1607 - Briterne etablerer Fort Popham -kolonien, som ikke holder den brutale vinter.

1622 - Sir Ferdinando Gorges og John Mason får rettigheder til lande, der udgør det, der nu er Maine og New Hampshire. Gorges blev den første person til at betegne territoriet "Maine".

1623 - Første savværk i Amerika.

1636 - Richmond Island -fiskere boykotter job (muligvis den første strejke i de nye kolonier!)

1652 - Maine er annekteret som et grænseterritorium af Massachusetts. Maines strategiske betydning er fastslået, da Massachusetts -embedsmænd betragtede det som den første forsvarslinje mod potentielle franske og indiske invasioner.

1658 - Massachusetts overtager Casco Bay og fuldender annektering af Maine -lande.

1675 - King Phillip's War begynder, hvad der bliver en lang og besværlig kamp mellem englænderne og franskmændene og indianerne om kontrol over de nordamerikanske territorier.

1675 - 1763 - Denne periode er præget af kontinuerlig konflikt mellem de nordamerikanske magter. Det, der begyndte med King Phillip's War, endte med, at Frankrig overgav deres besiddelser i den nye verden til englænderne ved afslutningen af ​​syvårskrigen. I løbet af denne tid bar Maine størstedelen af ​​flere angreb fra de franske og indiske styrker.

18. århundrede Maine History tidslinje

1759 - Amerikas første kvindelige romanforfatter, Madam Wood (Sally Sayward Barrell) blev født i York.

1761 - Første pælebro i Nordamerika bygget i York.

  • Det første søslag ved revolutionskrigen finder sted ud for Machias kyst.
  • Benedict Arnold marcherer et band af revolutionære gennem Maine i et mislykket forsøg på at erobre britiske højborge i Quebec City og Montreal.

1785 - Den første avis i Maine, Falmouth Gazette, blev oprettet med det udtrykte formål at fremme adskillelse fra Massachusetts.

1794 - Bowdoin College bliver Maines første post-sekundære institution.

19. århundrede Maine History tidslinje

1819 - Massachusetts accepterer at tillade District of Maine at bede om statslighed.

  • Som et resultat af Missouri -kompromiset bliver Maine sin egen stat.
  • Maine bliver ved statens forfatning den første stat til at give stemmeret og skoleprivilegier til alle, uanset race.

1839 - Guvernør Fairfield erklærer krig mod England over en grænsestrid mellem New Brunswick og det nordlige Maine. Det er første og eneste gang, en stat har erklæret krig mod en fremmed magt. Tvisten blev imidlertid afgjort, før der blev udgydt blod.

1842 - Webster - Ashburton -traktaten fra 1842 afgjorde grænsestriden Maine/New Brunswick, da begge parter gik på kompromis med en ny grænse mellem de to territorier.

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe begynder at skrive onkel Toms hytte i Brunswick, Maine. Denne roman skulle senere tjene som inspirationskilde for afskaffelsesfolk før borgerkrigen.
  • Første stat til at forbyde salg af alle alkoholholdige drikkevarer.

1860 - Paris, indfødt i Maine, Hannibal Hamlin hedder Abraham Lincolns vicepræsident.

1863 - Indfødt i Brunswick, Joshua Chamberlain forsvarede med succes Little Round Top mod konfødererede tropper i slaget ved Gettysburg i borgerkrigen. Chamberlains handlinger fungerede uden tvivl som vendepunktet for den kamp.

1866 - En stor brand ødelægger store dele af Portlands centrum i området, der nu er kendt som den gamle havn.

1876 - Portland rammes af en freak snestorm den fjerde juli.

1884 - Winslow Homer bosætter sig ved Prouts Neck i Scarborough, og James G. Blaine, republikansk præsidentkandidat, lider et smalt nederlag til Grover Cleveland.

1888 - Melville W. Fuller, hjemmehørende i Maine, bliver chefdommer for den amerikanske højesteret.

1898 - Det amerikanske slagskib "Maine" sank i Havana Havn, en hændelse, der hjælper med at udløse den spansk-amerikanske krig. "Husk Maine" bliver et krigsslogan

20. århundredes Maine History tidslinje

1905 - Første skovbrand -udsigtsstation i Amerika etableret ved Squaw Mountain nær Greenville.

1917 - USA går ind i 1. verdenskrig, Maine -lovgiver bevilger 1 million dollars til krigsformål.

1918 - Våbenhvile erklæres. Maines bidrag til krigsindsatsen beløber sig til 116 millioner dollars og 35.000 mænd.

1920 - September på det tidspunkt, kvinder i Maine er de første til at udøve franchisen.

1931 - Guvernør Percival Baxter begynder at købe jord i det nordlige Maine med det formål at etablere et vildtreservat. I løbet af 30 år ville Baxter købe over 90.000 acres. Dette land blev generøst doneret til oprettelsen af ​​Baxter State Park.

1934 - Statens forbudslov ophæves, hvilket gør salg af spiritus lovligt for første gang i 84 år.

1936 - De fleste katastrofale oversvømmelser i Maines historie resulterer i tab på i alt 25 millioner dollars

1941 - Præsident Roosevelt kommer i land ved Rockland efter at have underskrevet Atlantic Charter med den britiske premierminister, Winston Churchill

1947 - En katastrofal skovbrand fejer Maine -kysten, ødelægger mere end 1.000 hjem, udjævner syv lokalsamfund og forårsager skade på 50 flere, ødelægger 17.000 hektar Acadia National Park og sænker yderligere 200.000 hektar skov.

1948 - Skowhegan -indfødte Margaret Chase Smith er valgt til det amerikanske senat, hvilket gør hende til den første kvinde, der nogensinde blev stemt ind på dette kontor og også de første kvinder, der tjente i begge kongreshuse.

1955 - Filmmusical, "Carousel" er optaget på Boothbay Harbor.

1956 - Den første amerikanske atomubåd, USS Swordfish, blev opsendt ved Kittery-Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.

1957 - Valgdagen i Maine flyttes fra september til november med resten af ​​nationen.

1958 - Edmund Muskie er den første Maine -demokrat, der nogensinde er valgt til kongressen.

  • Første Polaris ubåd, USS Abraham Lincoln, blev opsendt ved Kittery-Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.
  • Konstruktionen af ​​"Telstar" kommunikationssatellit i Andover, Maine, markerer begyndelsen på den globale kommunikationsrevolution.

1968 - University of Maine -systemet er etableret, hvilket skaber offentlige post - sekundære institutioner i forskellige dele af staten.

1974 - James Longley vælges til guvernør i Maine. Han bliver den første populært valgte uafhængige guvernør i USA's historie.

1979 - Indfødt i Rumford, senator Edmund Muskie erstatter Cyrus Vance som præsident Carters udenrigsminister.

1980 - Præsident Carter underskriver den indiske jordkravsaftale.

1984 - Indfødt i Freeport, Joan Benoit Samuelson bliver den første vinder af guldmedaljen ved den første kvinde -olympiske maratonbegivenhed ved Sommer -OL 1984 i Los Angeles, CA.

1988 - Indfødt i Waterville, senator George Mitchell udnævnes til den amerikanske senats majoritetsleder.

1994 - Angus King bosat i Brunswick bliver kun den anden populært valgte uafhængige guvernør i USA's historie.

1997 - Indfødt i Bangor, senator William Cohen er svoret som præsident Clintons forsvarsminister.

21. århundrede Maine History tidslinje

2000 - Statslovgiver forbød alle racistiske eller nedsættende bynavne, der inkluderede & quotsquaw & quot eller & quot Negro & quot

2002 - John E. Baldacci blev valgt til guvernør i Maine og genvalgt i 2006.

2007 - Den franske præsident, Nicolas Sarkozy, besøgte præsident Bush hjemme hos familien i Maine

2009 - Ny rekord lav temperatur for staten blev sat til -50 ‚ ° F i januar

2010 - Prospect Harbour sardin -konserves lukkes ned - det sidste sardin -konservesfabrik i USA

2012 - Senator Olympia Snowe meddelte overraskende, at hun ville gå på pension og ikke søge genvalg


Slaget ved Orsha, 8. september 1514

Slaget ved Orsha fandt sted den 8. september 1514 mellem styrkerne i Storhertugdømmet Litauen og Kongeriget Polen (mindre end 30.000 tropper), under kommando af Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski, og Muscovys hær under Konyushy (“Tsar & #8217s Equerry ”) Ivan Chelyadnin og Kniaz (Prince) Mikhail Golitsa.

Slaget ved Orsha var en del af en lang kæde af krige, der blev ført af russiske zarer, der forsøgte at samle alle de gamle ruthenske landområder under deres styre. Den meget mindre hær i Storhertugdømmet Litauen og Polen besejrede de moskoviske styrker, fangede deres lejr og kommandør.

Slaget ved Orsza, af en ukendt maler under indflydelse af Lucas Cranach den Ældre, kendt som “Mesteren i slaget ved Orsza ”.Olie på træ, sandsynligvis efter 1524 eller endda 1530. Ifølge specialisterne skal forfatteren &# 8217 deltog selv i slaget. Maleriet er i øjeblikket på udstilling i Nationalmuseet i Warszawa.

I slutningen af ​​1512 begyndte Muscovy en ny krig for de ruthenske lande i det nuværende Hviderusland og Ukraine, der var en del af Storhertugdømmet Litauen. Fæstningen Smolensk var dengang den østligste forpost i Storhertugdømmet og en af ​​de vigtigste fæstninger, der vogter den mod øst. Det afviste flere muskovitiske angreb, men i juli 1514 belejrede en moskovitisk hær på 80.000 mand og 300 kanoner og til sidst erobrede den. (Nogle historikere hævder, at størrelsen på Muscovy ’s hær er blevet overvurderet: se “Diskuterede data ” nedenfor.)

På grund af denne indledende succes beordrede storfyrsten af ​​Muscovy Vasili III sine styrker længere ind i Hviderusland og besatte byerne Krychau, Mscislau og Dubrouna.

I mellemtiden samlede Polens kong Sigismund den Gamle omkring 35.000 tropper til krig med den østlige nabo. Denne hær var ringere i antal, men omfattede for det meste veluddannede kavalerier. Styrkerne i Storhertugdømmet Litauen og Kongeriget Polen placeret under kommando af Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski omfattede:

16.000 hest i storhertugdømmet,

14.000 polske kavalerier (lette og tunge), 3.000 lejesoldater,

2.500 frivillige, for det meste fra Bøhmen.

Kong Sigismund marcherede ind i Hviderusland og sikrede byen Barysau med en 4.000 mand stærk styrke, mens hovedstyrkerne fortsatte med at møde muskovitterne. I slutningen af ​​august fandt der flere træfninger sted ved krydsninger af floderne Berezina, Bobr og Druts, men den muscovitiske hær undgik en større konfrontation.

Lider ubetydelige tab avancerede muskovitterne til området mellem Orsha og Dubrouna ved floden Krapiuna, hvor de slog lejr. Ivan Chelyadnin, der var overbevist om, at de litauisk-polske styrker skulle krydse en af ​​to broer ved Dnepr, splittede sine egne styrker for at bevogte disse krydsninger. Ostrogski ’s hær krydsede imidlertid floden længere mod nord via to pontonbroer. Om natten den 7. september begyndte det forberedelserne til en sidste kamp med moskovitterne. Hetman Ostrogski placerede det meste af sin 16.000 litauiske (Litvin) hest i midten, mens de fleste af det polske infanteri og hjælpestropperne bemandede flankerne. Det bohemske og schlesiske infanteri blev indsat i midten af ​​linjen foran reserver omfattende litauisk og polsk kavaleri.

Den 8. september 1514, kort efter daggry, gav Ivan Chelyadnin ordre til at angribe. De muskovittiske styrker forsøgte at flankere litauerne og polakkerne ved at angribe flankerne, bemandet med polske tropper. En af angrebets tænger blev kommanderet af Chelyadnin personligt, mens den anden blev ledet af prins Bulgakov-Golitsa. Det første angreb mislykkedes, og muskovitterne trak sig tilbage mod deres udgangspositioner. Chelyadnin var stadig overbevist om, at de næsten 3: 1 odds i hans favør ville give ham sejren. Imidlertid optaget af sin egen fløj af de muscovitiske styrker mistede han overblikket over de andre sektorer og undlod at koordinere et forsvar mod kontraangrebet fra det litauiske kavaleri, som indtil da var blevet holdt i reserve.

Den litauiske lette hest angreb det overstrakte centrum af de muscovitiske linjer i et forsøg på at splitte dem. I det afgørende øjeblik syntes storhertugdømmets hest at vakle og gik derefter tilbage. Muskovitterne forfulgte med alle deres kavalerireserver. Den litauiske hest, efter at have trukket sig tilbage i flere minutter, jagtet af moskovitterne, vendte pludselig til siderne. Den muscovitiske hest befandt sig nu konfronteret med artilleri gemt i skoven. Fra begge sider dukkede polske styrker op og fortsatte med at omringe moskovitterne. Ivan Chelyadnin lød tilbagetog, som hurtigt blev noget panisk. De muskovitiske styrker blev forfulgt af hæren i Storhertugdømmet Litauen i fem kilometer.

Det muscovitiske nederlag tilskrives ofte gentagne fiaskoer af Ivan Chelyadnin og Golitsa for at koordinere deres operationer.

Ifølge beretninger i polske krøniker blev 30.000 muskovitter dræbt i slaget ved Orsha, og yderligere 3.000 blev taget til fange, herunder Ivan Chelyadnin og otte andre befalingsmænd. Styrkerne i Storhertugdømmet Litauen og Kongeriget Polen beslaglagde den muscovitiske lejr og alle 300 kanoner.

Oprørt af ordet for det massive nederlag bemærkede den muscovitiske storprins Vasili III angiveligt, at fangerne [var] lige så nyttige som de døde ” og afviste at forhandle om deres tilbagevenden. Slaget ved Orsha var et af de største slag i Europa fra 1500-tallet. Ostrogski ’s styrker fortsatte deres forfølgelse af den dirigerede muscovitiske hær og overtog de fleste af de tidligere erobrede højborge. Imidlertid var de litauiske og polske styrker for udmattede til at belejre Smolensk før vinteren. Også Ostrogski nåede ikke Smolensk -portene før i slutningen af ​​september, hvilket gav Vasili III nok tid til at forberede forsvaret.

I december 1514 kom Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski triumferende ind i Vilnius. For at fejre sejren blev der rejst to ortodokse kirker: Den Hellige Treenigheds Kirke og Sankt Nikolaus Kirke, der stadig er blandt de mest imponerende eksempler på ortodoks kirkearkitektur i Litauen.

På trods af sin formodede storhed medførte slaget ved Orsha ikke væsentlige politiske konsekvenser, hvilket vækker tvivl om den traditionelle fortolkning af dens forløb og antal ofre (se: omstridte data). Det kunne naturligvis ikke kompensere de strategiske resultater af det foregående slag ved Vedrosha. Krigen mellem Storhertugdømmet Litauen og Muscovy varede indtil 1520. I 1522 blev der indgået en fred, hvorved Storhertugdømmet Litauen blev tvunget til at afstå til Muscovy omkring en fjerdedel af dets ruthenske besiddelser, herunder Smolensk. Sidstnævnte by blev først taget tilbage fra Rusland, næsten et århundrede senere, i 1611.

Omstridte data

På grund af nederlagets spektakulære proportioner blev oplysninger om slaget ved Orsha undertrykt i moskoviske krøniker. Selv velrenommerede historikere i det russiske imperium som Sergey Solovyov er afhængige af ikke-russiske kilder. På den anden side søgte kong Sigismund I af Polen at få så mange politiske fordele som muligt ved sin sejr. Derfor er de citerede tal vedrørende størrelsen af ​​de respektive styrker og antallet af tilskadekomne og fangede spørgsmålstegn ved nogle moderne historikere.

Især menes størrelsen på den moskoviske hær (80.000) at have været alvorligt overdrevet. Selv Ivan den frygtelige, der befalede over et større territorium end sin far, kunne aldrig mønstre mere end 40.000 tropper, hvoraf 20% var nyerobrede tatarer og finner. Som en konsekvens er der også spørgsmålstegn ved antallet af dræbte (30.000).

Indirekte bevis på overdrivelse kan være, at kong Sigismund skrev pave Leo X og andre europæiske herskere, at hans hær havde dræbt 30.000 muskovitter og taget 46 kommandanter og 1.500 adelige til fange. Eksisterende polske og litauiske dokumenter viser imidlertid alle fangede adelsmænd ved navn, i alt kun 611 mænd.


Januar

Denne illustration, der skildrer belejringen af ​​Bexar-i dag San Antonio-er fra en bog fra midten af ​​1800-tallet blandt besiddelserne i Texas State Archives. Under belejringen i 1835 udviste "Texiske" styrker med succes mexicanske tropper fra San Antonio tre måneder senere, mexicanske styrker overtog byen i den berømte belejring af Alamo. Texas State Archives -beholdninger omfatter millioner af officielle Texas -regeringsoptegnelser fra den spanske kolonitid gennem nutiden samt bøger og tidsskrifter, manuskripter, kort, fotografier og andre visuelle ressourcer og artefakter. Arkiverne sammen med andre samlinger af statslige og føderale dokumenter, slægtshistorisk materiale og referenceartikler administreres af Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Fotokredit: Archives Division-Texas State Library.

Ed. Bemærk: Dette billede er blevet ændret digitalt for at passe til formatet på C & ampRL News 'cover.


Belejring af Dibalpur, midten af ​​januar 1524 - Historie

CV-23: dp. 13.000 (f.) 1. 622'6 & quot, b. 71'6 & quot, ew. 109'2 & quot dr. 26 'erne. 31 k. cpl. 1.569 a. 22 40 mm., 16 20 mm. ae. 45 cl. Uafhængighed)

En historie
Den fjerde Princeton blev fastsat som Tallahassee (CL-61) af NewYork Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, NJ, 2. juni 1941 omklassificeret CV-23 den 16. februar 1942 omdøbt til Princeton 31. marts 1942 lanceret 18. oktober 1942, sponsoreret af fru Harold Dodds, og bestilt i Philadelphia 25. februar 1943, kaptajn George R. Henderson i kommando.

Efter shakedown i Caribien og omklassificering til CVL-23 den 15. juli 1943 kom Princeton med Air Group 23 i gang til Stillehavet. Da hun ankom til Pearl Harbor 9. august, sorterede hun med TF 11 den 25. og satte kursen mod Baker Island. Der fungerede hun som flagskib, TG 11.2 og sørgede for luftdækning under besættelsen af ​​øen og anlæggelsen af ​​en flyveplads der, 1.-14. September. I løbet af den tid faldt hendes fly ned på japanske & quotEmily & quot & rekognoseringsfly og, vigtigere, forsynede flåden med fotografier af dem.

Princeton mødte med TF 15 og gennemførte angreb mod fjendtlige installationer på Makin og Tarawa, hvorefter han ledede tilbage til Pearl Harbor. I midten af ​​oktober sejlede hun til Espiritu Santo -luder, som hun sluttede sig til TF 38 den 20. Med den kraft sendte hun sine fly mod flyvepladserne Buka og Bonis på Bougainville (1-2. November) for at reducere japansk luftmodstand under landingen ved kejserinde Augusta Bay. Den 5. og 11. flyede angrebene mod Rabaul, og den 19. med TF 50 hjalp det med at neutralisere flyvepladsen ved Nauru. Princeton dampede derefter nordøst, dækkede garnisongrupperne på vej til Makin og Tarawa, og efter at have udvekslet operationelle fly til beskadigede fly fra andre luftfartsselskaber kom i gang for Pearl Harbor og vestkysten.

Tilgængeligheden ved Bremerton fulgte, og den 3. januar 1944 dampede Princeton vestpå. På Pearl Harbor sluttede hun sig til de hurtige transportører af TF 50, nu betegnet TF 58. Den 19. sorterede hun med TG 58.4 til strejker i Wotje og Taroa (29-31. Januar) for at støtte amfibieoperationer mod Kwajalein og Majuro. Hendes fly fotograferede den næste angrebsmål, Eniwetok, 2. februar og den 3. vendte tilbage på en mere destruktiv opgave-nedrivning af luftfeltet på Engebi. I 3 dage blev atollen bombet og straffet. Den 7. Princeton trak sig tilbage til Kwajalein kun for at vende tilbage til Eniwetok den 10.-13. Og 16.-28., Da hendes fly blødgjorde strandene for invasionstyrken og derefter gav luftdækning under angrebet og den efterfølgende kamp.

Fra Eniwetok trak Princeton sig tilbage til Majuro, derfra til Espiritu Santo for fornyelse. Den 23. marts gik hun i gang med strejker mod fjendtlig installation og skibsfart i Carolines. Efter at have slået Palaus, genopfyldte Wolesi og Yapthe -styrken ved Majuro og sorterede igen 13. april. Ved dampning til New Guinea leverede luftfartsselskaberne luftdæksel til Hollandia-operationen (21.-29. April) og krydsede derefter tilbage over den internationale datolinje til raidTruk (29.-30. April) og Ponape (1. maj).

Den 11. maj vendte Princeton tilbage til Pearl Harbor for kun at afgå igen den 29. til Majuro. Der sluttede hun sig tilbage til de hurtige transportører og pegede sin bue mod Marianerne for at støtte angrebet på Saipan. Fra 11-18 sendte Juneshe sine fly mod mål på Guam, Rota, Tinian, Pagan og Saipan og dampede derefter vestpå for at opfange en japansk flåde, der rapporteres at være på vej fra Filippinerne til Marianerne. I det efterfølgende slag ved det filippinske hav bidrog Princetons fly med 30 drab og hendes kanoner yderligere 3, plus1 assist, til den ødelæggende vejafgift, der blev påført Japans søvåbenarm.

Da han vendte tilbage til Marianerne, slog Princeton igen Pagan, Rota og Guam, derefter genopfyldes i Eniwetok. Den 14. juli gik hun i gang igen, da fastcarrierene returnerede deres eskadriller til Marianerne for at stille luftdæksel til angreb og besættelse af Guam og Tinian. Den 2. august vendte styrken tilbage til Eniwetok, genopfyldes og sejlede derefter til Filippinerne. Enroute dens fly besøgte Palaus, derefter den 9.-10. September ramte flyvepladser på det nordlige Mindanao. Den 11. bankede de VisaYas. I midten af ​​måneden flyttede styrken sig tilbage til Stillehavs-skakbrættet for at støtte Palau-offensiven, vendte derefter tilbage til Filippinerne for at ramme Luzon, koncentreret sig om Clark og Nichols-felterne. Styrken trak sig derefter tilbage til Ulithi og bombede og ødelagde i begyndelsen af ​​oktober fjendens flyvepladser, installationer og skibsfart i Nansei Shoto og Formosaarea som forberedelse til invasionen af ​​Filippinerne.

Den 20. blev der landet ved Dulag og San Pedro Bay, Leyte. Princeton, i TG 38.3, sejlede ud for Luzon og sendte hendes fly mod flyvepladser der for at forhindre japanske landbaserede flyangreb på allierede skibe, der var samlet i Leyte -bugten. Den 24. fandt imidlertid fjendtlige fly fra Clark og Nichols felterne TG 38.3 og gengældte. Kort før 1000 kom en ensom fjendtlig dykkerbombefly ud af skyerne over Princeton. På 1500 fod frigav piloten sin bombe. Det ramte mellem elevatorer, styrtede igennem & quot flightdeck og bøjle, derefter eksploderede. De indledende brande udvidede sig hurtigt, da yderligere eksplosioner sendte sort røg til at trille ud af flygedækket og røde flammer langs siderne fra øen til akterenden. Dækningsfartøjer ydede rednings- og brandbekæmpelse og beskyttede den ramte transportør mod yderligere angreb. I 1524 endnu en meget tungere eksplosion, muligvis sprængte bombemagasinet luftfartsselskabets akter og med det efterflyvningsdækket. Birmingham, langs siden for at bekæmpe brande, led store skader og tab.

Bestræbelserne på at redde Princeton fortsatte, men i 1604 vandt brandene. Både blev anmodet om at tage resterende personale af og kort efter 1706 begyndte Irwin at affyre torpedoer ved den brændende hulk. I 1746 lindrede Reno Irwinand i 1749 den sidste og største eksplosion. Flammer og ødelæggelser op til 1000-2000 fod. Princetons fremadgående sektion var væk. Hendes efterafsnit dukkede kortvarigt op gennem røgen. I 1750 var hun forsvundet, men 1.361 af hendes besætning overlevede. Ineluded i dette nummer var kaptajn John M. Hoskins, der havde været kommende kommandør for CVL-23 og mistet højrefoden med hende, men som trods tabet ville blive den første kommandør for femte Princeton (CV-37) .

Tab og skader på hjælpefartøjer var tunge: Birmingham-85 dræbte 300 sårede, en stærkt beskadiget overside og tab på 2 5 & quot, 2 0 mm. og2 20 mm. kanoner, -skov tabt, havnen smadret Irwin -forward 5 & quot mountsand direktør ud, styrbord side smadret og 40mm. smadret.


Court of Gayumars

Sultan Muhammad (tilskrevet), Court of Kayumars (Safavid: Tabiz, Iran), ca. 1524–1525, fra Shah Tahmasp Shahnameh, ca. 1524–35, uigennemsigtig akvarel, blæk og guld på papir, 45 x 30 cm (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto) højttaler: Dr. Michael Chagnon, kurator, Aga Khan Museum og Dr. Steven Zucker

Sultan Muhammad (tilskrevet), Court of Kayumars (Safavid: Tabiz, Iran), ca. 1524–1525, fra Shah Tahmasp Shahnameh, ca. 1524–35, uigennemsigtig akvarel, blæk og guld på papir, 45 x 30 cm (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto) højttalere: Dr. Filiz Çakir Phillip, kurator, Aga Khan Museum og Dr. Steven Zucker

Hele siden til venstre og detaljer, til højre: Sultan Muhammad, Court of Gayumars, c.1522, 47 x 32 cm, uigennemsigtig akvarel, blæk, guld, sølv på papir, folio 20v, Shahnameh af Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Shahnama

Denne overdådige side, The Court of Gayumars (også stavet Kayumars - se øverst på siden, detaljer nedenfor og stort billede her), stammer fra et belyst manuskript af Shahnama (Kongernes Bog) - et episk digt, der beskriver kongedømmets historie i Persien (hvad der nu er Iran). På grund af sin blanding af malerier fra både Tabriz og Herat (se kortet nedenfor), dens lysende pigmenter, fine detaljer og komplekse billeder, skiller denne kopi af Shahnama sig ud i historien om den kunstneriske produktion i Centralasien.

Shahnama blev skrevet af Abu al-Qāsim Ferdowsi omkring år 1000 og er et mesterligt eksempel på persisk poesi. Den episke krøniker fortæller om konger og helte, der forud daterer islams introduktion til Persien såvel som de menneskelige oplevelser af kærlighed, lidelse og død. Epikken er blevet kopieret utallige gange - ofte med detaljerede illustrationer (se et andet eksempel her).

Safavid protektion

Dette særlige manuskript af Shahnama blev påbegyndt i de første år af 1500 -tallet for den første safavidiske dynastiske hersker, Shah Ismail I, men blev afsluttet under ledelse af hans søn, Shah Tahmasp I i ​​den nordlige persiske by Tabriz (se kort under). De safavidiske dynastiske herskere hævdede at stammer fra sufi -shaiker - mystiske ledere fra Ardabīl i det nordvestlige Iran. Navnet “Safavid ” stammer fra en bestemt forfædres sufi, kaldet Shaykh Safi al-Din (bogstaveligt oversat som “religion for religionen ”). Over et tohundrede års spænd, der startede i 1501, kontrollerede safaviderne store dele af det, der i dag er Iran og Aserbajdsjan (se kortet herunder). Safaviderne bestilte aktivt bygningen af ​​offentlige arkitektoniske komplekser såsom moskeer (billede herunder), og de var lånere af bogens kunst. Faktisk var manuskriptbelysning central for Safavids kongelige værn for kunsten.

Imam-moskeen (tidligere Masjed-e Shah) blev bygget til en senere safavid-hersker i det 17. århundrede, Isfahan, Iran. foto: Ladsgroup, GNU Free Documentation License

Skildrer tal

Det antages ofte, at billeder, der indeholder menneskelige og dyrefigurer, som det ses i detaljer nedenfor, er forbudt i islam. Nylige stipendier fremhæver imidlertid, at der igennem islams historie har været perioder, hvor ikonoklastiske tendenser voksede og aftog. 1 Det vil sige på bestemte tidspunkter og steder tolereredes repræsentationen af ​​mennesker eller dyr i forskellige grader.

Detaljer, Sultan Muhammad, Court of Gayumars, ca. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, uigennemsigtig akvarel, blæk, guld, sølv på papir, folio 20v, Shahnameh af Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Der er en lang figurtradition i Persien - selv efter islams introduktion - det er måske mest tydeligt i bogillustration. Det er også vigtigt at bemærke, at safaviderne, i modsætning til det osmanniske imperium i vest, der var sunnier og på nogle måder mere ortodokse, tilsluttede sig shi'i -sekten af ​​islam.

To kulturcentre

Selvom det er almindeligt anerkendt, at konventionerne om det, der undertiden betegnes som "klassisk" 2 persisk maleri, var blevet etableret i det fjortende århundrede, er det i Shah Tahmasp I's regeringstid, at vi ser de mest dramatiske fremskridt inden for belysning og kunst i kunsten bog mere generelt. 3 Hans protektion for denne specifikke kunstform skyldes til dels hans egne malerstudier i Herat (i den vestlige region i det nuværende Afghanistan) og Tabriz (i den nordvestlige region i det nuværende Iran) under Bihzad og sultan Muhammad, henholdsvis. 4 Begge byer var store centre for fremstilling af manuskriptbelysning. Mens hele manuskriptet til Shahnameh af Shah Tahmasp I består af cirka 759 illustrerede folioer og 258 miniaturer, der alle er produceret i løbet af flere år, 5 denne særlige miniature tilskrives værkstedet for Sultan Muhammad ifølge Dust Muhammad, en kunstner og historiker fra denne periode. 6 I 1568 blev denne overdådige Shahnameh givet som en gave af Shah Tahmasp I til den osmanniske sultan, Selim II. 7

Nasta’liq (detaljer), Sultan Muhammad, Court of Gayumars, ca. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, uigennemsigtig akvarel, blæk, guld, sølv på papir, folio 20v, Shahnameh af Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Verdens konge

Der er flere fortolkningsspørgsmål, man skal huske på, når man analyserer persiske malerier. As with many of the workshops of early modern West Asia, producing a page such as the Court of Gayumars often entailed the contributions of many artists. It is also important to remember that a miniature painting from an illuminated manuscript should not be thought of in isolation. The individual pages that we today find in museums, libraries, and private collections must be understood as but one sheet of a larger book—with its own history, conditions of production, and dispersement. To make matters even more complex, the relationship of text to image is rarely straightforward in Persianate manuscripts. Text and image, within these illuminations, do not always mirror each other. 8 Nevertheless, the framed calligraphic nasta’liq ( hanging)—the Persian text at the top and bottom of the frame (image above) can be roughly translated as follows:

When the sun reached the lamb constellation , 9 when the world became glorious,
When the sun shined from the lamb constellation to rejuvenate the living beings entirely,
It was then when Gayumars became the King of the World.
He first built his residence in the mountains.
His prosperity and his palace rose from the mountains, and he and his people wore leopard pelts.
Cultivation began from him, and the garments and food were ample and fresh. 10

King Gayumars (detail), Sultan Muhammad, The Court of Gayumars, c. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, opaque watercolor, ink, gold, silver on paper, folio 20v, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto).

Dense with detail

In this folio (page), we can see some parallels between the content of the calligraphic text and the painting itself. Seated in a cross-legged position, as if levitating within this richly vegetal and mountainous landscape, King Gayumars rises above his courtiers, who are gathered around at the base of the painting. According to legend, King Gayumars was the first king of Persia, and he ruled at a time when people clothed themselves exclusively in leopard pelts, as both the text and the represented subjects’ speckled garments indicate.

King Gayumars, Siyamak, and Hushang (detail), Sultan Muhammad, The Court of Gayumars, c. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, opaque watercolor, ink, gold, silver on paper, folio 20v, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Perched on cliffs beside the King are his son, Siyamak (left, standing), and grandson Hushang (right, seated) . 11 Onlookers can be seen to surreptitiously peer out from the scraggly, blossoming branches onto King Gayumars from the upper left and right. The miniature’s spatial composition is organized on a vertical axis with the mountain behind the king in the distance, and the garden below in the foreground. Nevertheless, there are multiple points of perspective, and perhaps even multiple moments in time—rendering a scene dense with details meant to absorb and enchant the viewer.

Sutra Box with Dragons amid Clouds, c. 1403-24 (Yongle period, Ming dynasty), 14 x 12.7 x 40.6 cm, red lacquer with incised decoration inlaid with gold damascened brass lock and key (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

One might see stylistic similarities between the swirling blue-gray clouds floating overhead with pictorial representations in Chinese art (image above) this is no coincidence. Persianate artists under the Safavids regularly incorporated visual motifs and techniques derived from Chinese sources. 12 While the intense pigments of the rocky terrain seem to fade into the lush and verdant animal-laden garden below, a gold sky canopies the scene from above. This piece—in all its density color, detail, and sheer exuberance—is a testament to the longstanding cultural reverence for Ferdowsi’s epic tale and the unparalleled craftsmanship of both Sultan Muhammad and Shah Tahmasp’s workshops.

1. See Christiane Gruber, “Between Logos (Kalima) and Light (Nūr): Representations of the Prophet Muhammad in Islamic Painting,” Muqarnas 16 (2009), pp. 229-260 Finbarr B. Flood, “Between Cult and Culture: Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum,” The Art Bulletin 84, 4 (December 2002), pp. 641-659 Christiane Gruber, “The Koran Does Not Forbid Images of the Prophet,” Newsweek (January 9, 2015).

2. For a helpful analysis of the historiographic ascription of the term ‘classical’ to Persian painting and the cultural hierarchy that was established largely by scholar-collectors in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, see Christiane Gruber, “Questioning the ‘Classical’ in Persian Painting: Models and Problems of Definition,” in the Journal of Art Historiography 6 (June 2012), pp. 1-25.

3. David J. Roxburgh, “Micrographia: Toward a Visual Logic of Persianate Painting,” RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics , nej. 43 (Spring 2003), pp. 12-30.

4. Sheila Canby affirms Stuart Cary Welch’s estimate that it took Sultan Muhammad and his workshop three years to complete the Court of Gayumars illustration. Sheila Canby, The Golden Age of Persian Art, 1501-1722 (New York: Abrams, 2000), p. 51.

5. David J. Roxburgh, “On the Brink of Tragedy: The Court of Gayumars from Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnama (‘Book of Kings’), Sultan Muhammad,” in Christopher Dell, ed., What Makes a Masterpiece: Artists, Writers and Curators on the World’s Greatest Works of Art (London New York: Thames & Hudson, 2010), pp. 182-185 182. The text was subsequently possessed by Baron Edmund de Rothschild and then sold to Arthur A. Houghton Jr, who in turn sold pages of the book individually.

6. Roxburgh, “Micrographia: Toward a Visual Logic of Persianate Painting,” p. 19. “In the Persianate painting, however, image follows after word in a linear sequence the text introduces and follows after the image, but it is not actually read when the image is being viewed…In the Persian book the act of seeing is initiated by a process of remembering the narrative just told. Moreover, that text does not prepare the viewer for what will be seen in the painting.”

7. This expression denotes the beginning of spring.

8. I am grateful to Dr. Alireza Fatemi for generously providing this translation.


Initial moves (1521&ndash22)

In June, Imperial armies under Henry of Nassau invaded north-eastern France, razing the cities of Ardres and Mouzon and besieging Tournai. They were delayed by the dogged resistance of the French, led by Pierre Terrail, Seigneur de Bayard and Anne de Montmorency, during the Siege of Mezieres, which gave Francis time to gather an army to confront the attack. On October 22, 1521, Francis encountered the main Imperial army, which was commanded by Charles V himself, near Valenciennes. Despite the urging of Charles de Bourbon, Francis hesitated to attack, which allowed Charles time to retreat. When the French were finally ready to advance, the start of heavy rains prevented an effective pursuit and the Imperial forces were able to escape without a battle. Shortly afterwards, French troops under Bonnivet and Claude of Lorraine seized the key city of Fuenterrabia, at the mouth of the Bidasoa River on the Franco-Spanish border, following a protracted series of maneuvers, providing the French with an advantageous foothold in northern Spain that would remain in their hands for the next two years.

By November, the French situation had deteriorated considerably. Charles, Henry VIII, and the Pope signed an alliance against Francis on November 28. Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, the French governor of Milan, was tasked with resisting the Imperial and Papal forces he was outmatched by Prosper Colonna, however, and by late November had been forced out of Milan and had retreated to a ring of towns around the Adda River. There, Lautrec was reinforced by the arrival of fresh Swiss mercenaries but, having no money available to pay them, he gave in to their demands to engage the Imperial forces immediately. On April 27, 1522, he attacked Colonna's combined Imperial and Papal army near Milan at the Battle of Bicocca. Lautrec had planned to use his superiority in artillery to his advantage, but the Swiss, impatient to engage the enemy, masked his guns and charged against the entrenched Spanish arquebusiers. In the resulting melee, the Swiss were badly mauled by the Spanish under Fernando d'Avalos, Marquess of Pescara, and by a force of landsknechts commanded by Georg Frundsberg. Their morale broken, the Swiss returned to their cantons Lautrec, left with too few troops to continue the campaign, abandoned Lombardy entirely. Colonna and d'Avalos, left unopposed, proceeded to besiege Genoa, capturing the city on May 30.


Siege of Dibalpur, mid January 1524 - History

Chronology, Volume 1
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A Collection of 50 Short Essays Within the Timeline of American History.

Buy Chronology, Volume 1, by the Staff at America's Best History in easy to read, print, and search Digital format for Your Kindle/Computer, Nook, PDF, or in the Paperback Edition.

Chronology from the staff of Americasbesthistory.com is a collection of fifty articles written about subjects throughout the history of the United States.

Review - "Chronology" offers a fascinating series of snapshots throughout American history, including things I really haven't thought about, such as. what was life like here before the European explorers showed up? Some of the chapters are essays about specific topics or time periods, and others are the actual text of documents from our history. Even if you think you know American history, I'll bet you'll find something you didn't know, or an aspect you never thought about!" - Ruth Brown, Gettysburg Historian.

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More About Chronology, the Book

Spanning the period of time from Columbus to the present, the articles in Chronology, with supporting documents and letters written by participants and Congress, cover a variety of topics, including what America was like on the last day of the year prior to European discovery, . "America Prior to Columbus" - December 31, 1491, to the time when Benjamin Franklin poked the lion of mother country England with two essays about the plight of the colonists, . "Franklin Muses Against British Empire" - September 11, 1773, to George Washington's final letter before leaving office to the American people, warning against political parties, something both Democrats and Republicans should consider today, . "Washington and His Warnings for Democracy" - September 19, 1796, to the first time South Carolina wanted to leave the Union with its Nullification Act thirty years prior to the Civil War, . "The First Problem with South Carolina" - March 2, 1833, and the desire of Americans to head west in the first major wagon train to California in, . "Westward Ho" - May 1, 1841.

These articles continue forward through history until the present day on topics of the history of race relations, voting rights, bad compasses, the National Football League, the Internet, and the Supreme Court.




Article Index

America Prior to Columbus - December 31, 1491
Treaty of Tordesillas - June 7, 1494
The Verrazzano Expedition - January 17, 1524
The Valladolid Debate Over Treatment of American Indians - 1550-1551
History of Jamestown Continues with Pocahontas Marriage to John Rolfe - April 5, 1614
New Netherlands Seized by British - September 8, 1664
Colonists Declared Rights - October 7, 1765
Franklin Muses Against British Empire - September 11, 1773
France and United States Form Alliance - February 6, 1778
The United States Needs a Bank - May 26, 1781

Whiskey and Washington's Proclamation - September 1, 1794
Washington and His Warnings for Democracy - September 19, 1796
From the Shores of Tripoli - April 27, 1805
Congress Corrects One Small Part of the U.S. Constitution Regarding Slavery - March 2, 1807
Got a Mule and Her Name is Sal - July 4, 1817
Arikara Indian War - August 9, 1823
First Attempt by Texas to Become a Republic - December 21, 1826
The First Problem with South Carolina - March 2, 1833
Women's Rights, Property Style - February 15, 1839
Westward Ho - May 1, 1841

California and Its Short Republic - June 10, 1846
MSNBC Dismays, but Gets Programming - February 28, 1854
Northwest Tribes Cede Territory - July 1, 1855
The Pony Express Begins - April 3, 1860
Civil War Leads to Civil Rights - March 13, 1866
Voting Rights and Race - March 30, 1870
The World is Amazed at the Centennial - May 10, 1876
Race and Education - July 4, 1881
Polygamy Outlawed - March 22, 1882
Carnegie Hall Opens - May 5, 1891




Cuba becomes U.S. Protectorate - March 2, 1901
Panama, Its Independence, and a Canal - November, 3, 1903
Alaska Erupts Volcano Style - June 6, 1912
A Telegram and World War I - February 3, 1917
Women Finally Given Right to Vote - August 18, 1920
Men Given the NFL - September 17, 1920
Arms Reduction Treaty Doesn't Work - April 22, 1930
Wrong Way Corrigan - July 18, 1938
United States Occupies Iceland - July 7, 1941
Truman Ends Segregation in the Military - July 26, 1948

Brown Versus Board of Education - May 17, 1954
I Have a Dream - August 28, 1963
The Internet is Born - November 21, 1969
Arab Oil Embargo - October 19, 1973
Borked - October 23, 1987
Illegal Immigration and Amnesty - May 4, 1988
Better Late Than Never - May 7, 1992
Iraq War - September 29, 1998
Microsoft and Anti-Trust - April 3, 2000
USA/Cuba Relations - July 20, 2015


Clement VII and the sack of Rome

Giulio de’ Medici, who finally emerged as Pope Clement VII in November 1523, was not only a tried administrator but a prelate hardened by much experience of armed conflict. As a youth in 1497 he had taken part in an attempt to restore the family to power in Florence indeed, Guicciardini, commenting on this, remarked that he was more suited to arms than to the priesthood. He entered the crusading Order of Knights Hospitaller of St John, and joined the household of his cousin, Cardinal Giovanni de’ Medici, accompanying him – and unlike him, avoiding capture – at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512. After Giovanni’s accession as Leo X Giulio was promoted to the cardinalate and office of Vice-Chancellor, and – as already mentioned – served as papal legate to the army in the campaign against Francis I in Lombardy in 1515 and in the war of Urbino. He took part in crusade planning in 1517 and in the Marche campaign in 1520, and was again legate to the army in the war in Lombardy in 1521. He continued to be active under Adrian VI, and in April 1522 was credited with defeating an attempted Bentivoglio coup at Bologna. The English ambassador at Rome reported (quoted here in his own words with archaic spelling),

Cardinal de Medicis, as legat of the said citie, made soche provision… that, the armye being within, with the aid of the peple issued out and slewe diverse of ther enemys…and put the whole [French and Bentivoglio] armye to flight so that the said Citie by the wisdom and diligence of the said Cardinall is savid for the Churche.

Yet after he became pope in November 1523 Giulio was for ever stamped – thanks to contemporary writers such as Guicciardini and Giovio, who observed him closely – with the reputation of timidity and vacillation. This was the pope who in May 1527 would have to face the sack of Rome, the gravest, most terrifying and humiliating challenge of armed force faced by any pope throughout the whole history of the papal monarchy, worse than in 1084, 1112, 1303, 1413, 1494 or indeed 1798 or 1870.

It could be argued that Clement lacked several of the indispensable qualities to be an effective Renaissance pope, and could do little about it. Of these essentials, he lacked first large resources of money. Second he lacked an aspiring and dependable son, nephew or other close male relative anxious to make a career in the Church or the papal state. His second cousin Giovanni Salviati, on whom Leo had conferred the red hat in 1517, was to prove quite able as a diplomatist, but he was probably too Florentine and parentally dominated to be potentially a Machiavellian new prince. It is worth noting, however, that Machiavelli had sent him a copy of his Art of War, about which the young cardinal wrote appreciatively in September 1521, assuring the author that the defects in organisation of modern armies, including the army of the Church, could be overcome by adopting his precepts. Another second cousin, Ippolito, who would become a cardinal in 1529, was altogether too young and too headstrong to fill the role of a prince within the papal state, and even he yearned in preference for power in Florence. Third, and most important of all Clement’s deficiencies, the second Medici pope lacked fortuna.

This third deficiency was most evident from the course of war in Italy in 1524–25 between the forces of Charles V and Francis I. Having at first continued cautiously to support the imperial cause, Clement, much influenced by Gianmatteo Giberti, his former secretary now promoted to a major post (‘datarius’) in the papal chancery, wavered and switched to France. How can this fatal step be explained? The Pope had of course pro-French tendencies going far back in his career, and may have been dazzled by Francis I’s successes in Lombardy in the autumn of 1524. He may even have had hopes, in spite of its dangers, about the foolhardy expedition to the south of James Stuart, Duke of Albany, or at least wanted to avoid exposing Rome to any threat from Albany’s large army. If only that adamant Swiss, Cardinal Schiner, had still been around, maybe Clement would have been dissuaded from switching to France, but Schiner had died at Rome in December 1522, a year before his former partner in anti-French campaigns became pope. An official agreement was signed with Francis in January 1525, but the timing could not have been worse, on account of the sensational defeat and capture of Francis in the Battle of Pavia at the end of February. This left Clement, by a stroke of extraordinarily bad luck, in a position of weakness from which it would take long to recover. Giberti, falling back on the argument that it was all a miraculous demonstration of God’s will, encouraged the cardinal legate, Giovanni Salviati, to send a note of congratulation to Charles V and express the Pope’s hope that peace would follow, that this was what he had always desired. In fact, a treaty negotiated with the Emperor and signed on his behalf by Lannoy, viceroy of Naples, seemed to give Clement almost all he could want. It included the guaranteed integrity of the papal state, with Reggio and Rubiera, which had been seized again by Alfonso d’Este during the long papal vacancy in autumn 1523, handed back, and Francesco II Sforza accepted as Duke of Milan. Unfortunately for Clement, nothing was done to implement this treaty.

After the Peace of Madrid, in January 1526, when Francis I was released from captivity, and in turn proceeded to break the terms that had been agreed, Clement again needed to act decisively. In a long letter or harangue addressed to him in March Guicciardini reproached him for not being as firm and astute as he had been as a cardinal, and insisted that decisive action could still save the situation and ‘liberate the Apostolic See and Italy from this atrocious and disgraceful servitude’. The Pope should act boldly, Guicciardini complained for instance, he should retake Reggio ‘or play some trick on Cardinal Pompeo Colonna’, who was certainly the most aggressive, pro-imperial and ambitious member of the Sacred College. He (Clement) could yet emerge as ‘the most glorious pope in two hundred years’.

For brief periods Clement appeared to muster some strength. The signing in May 1526 of the Holy League of Cognac with Francis I, an avowedly aggressive alliance, seemed to signify a new beginning. In a letter of self-justification sent to the Emperor in June 1526 the Pope was emphatic that Charles should withdraw from Italy, reproaching him for the non-fulfilment of treaty obligations and his violations of papal territory including Parma, and his forcing Clement to seek other allies and to take arms in self-defence. In July Guicciardini, now commissary general of the papal army, saw that immediate action was imperative: a rapid move to capture Milan had every chance of victory over the unpaid, unprepared, numerically inferior imperial forces in Lombardy. That this did not happen seems to have been mainly the fault of the Duke of Urbino, who first hesitated because the Swiss troops had not arrived, and then, having made in July several unsuccessful attempts to attack Milan, retreated in August and September he lost more time, in spite of receiving French reinforcements, by carrying on the fairly pointless siege of Cremona, then held by imperial forces.

Perhaps it would have made a difference if Clement VII had appointed a resolute cardinal legate to the army and applied himself with furious vigour, as Julius II would have done, to rallying the coalition and insisting on action. The blame, it has to be repeated, falls on the Duke of Urbino, that same Francesco Maria della Rovere who had failed his uncle Julius II in 1511 and been ousted from Urbino by Leo X, only to be reinstated in his dukedom under Adrian VI and – in spite of his known resentment against the Medici for the way they had treated him – reappointed Captain of the Church by Clement. Meanwhile, as well as losing the military initiative, Clement received a crushing reply to his ‘justification’, aimed at depriving him also of the moral high ground. This reply, handed to Castiglione on 18 September 1526, took the argument back to fundamentals, even playing the Lutheran card. The Pope, the Emperor insisted, had drawn the sword that Christ ordered Peter to put up. It was beyond belief for the vicar of Christ to acquire worldly possessions at the cost of even one drop of human blood. No one was coming to attack the Holy See, so there was no need of weapons or troops.

As for Guicciardini’s suggestion to play a clever trick on Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, Clement was instead the victim of an outrageous demonstration by that overpowerful dissident, who in spite of the above assurance did come to attack the Holy See, and moreover did so in the Emperor’s name. Pompeo had nearly been elected pope himself in 1523 but was finally persuaded to switch his votes (rather reminiscent of Ascanio Sforza in 1492) in exchange for the vice-chancellorship and other compensations his fury at Clement’s desertion of the Emperor in 1525 and signing later of the League of Cognac led him to call an armed march on Rome by the Colonna and their supporters in September 1526. Here was a cardinal – not only that, but the Vice-Chancellor of the Church, head of the whole machinery of papal government – declaring war on the Pope: it was one of the most bizarre and anarchic episodes in a long trend of violent behaviour on the part of a secularised minority in the Sacred College. According to Paolo Giovio, whose biography of Pompeo was highly partisan and stressed his love of family and military honour, 8000 knights and 3000 infantry commanded by Pompeo’s brother were involved in this expedition, with artillery drawn by buffaloes and men, helped at difficult points by Pompeo himself.63 When they reached Rome the cardinal shut himself up in his palace, leaving his followers do as much damage as they could, looting and terrifying the inhabitants of Rome, though they did not succeed in laying hands on Clement.

The Pope took his revenge on the Colonna in November 1526 with a punitive campaign worthy of Alexander VI, demolishing their fortresses and devastating their lands. According to the papal bull condemning Pompeo, which was published in February 1527, the latter’s purpose had been to seize Clement, alive or dead, and to rule as pope in his place, apparently without election by his peers, or any other of the normal formalities. It is hard to imagine how on earth Pompeo can have justified to his conscience and his confessor this treasonable presumption, or justified using force in a manner more calculated to endanger than defend the Church. Though formally deprived of his cardinalate and other offices, he was not punished for long. In fact, he was soon needed to intercede on Clement’s behalf with much more fanatical enemies than himself, and give refuge to fellow cardinals and others in danger.

Meanwhile in September 1526 the Job-like Clement had also had to bear the shock of the Turkish victory at Mohács in Hungary, and news of the loss to Christendom of that country. Like Adrian and Leo before him when such tidings of disaster arrived, Clement declared that he himself would take part in a military expedition and as vicar of Christ was prepared to lay down his life. It was no clearer than the avowals of previous popes, whether he meant by this simply to be ready for martyrdom, or was prepared even to fall in combat. A war-planning council of five cardinals was set up, but it is fairly clear that the Pope’s distractions in Italy, quite apart from his shortage of money, meant that nothing would be done.

Worse than the Colonna raid was to come in the spring of 1527, with the League of Cognac coalition not only continuing to do nothing, but even failing to protect Rome from the mainly Spanish army advancing under the Duke of Bourbon’s command and the horde of Lutheran ‘landsknechts’ under George von Frundsberg. The latter were mercenary foot soldiers, first raised by the Emperor Maximilian in the early years of the century from the south German lowlands. Less disciplined than the Alpine Swiss on whom they were supposedly modelled, landsknechts were a brutal new phenomenon in European warfare. Armed with huge pikes and swords, swaggering in feathered hats and slashed breeches, inspired by Lutheran slogans but furious for want of food and wages, Frundsberg’s undisciplined troops were a terrifying prospect for Rome, even if the Spaniards, demoralised after Bourbon’s death, proved to be equally brutal and avaricious.

For all his military experience, Clement did not strike a heroic pose as he cowered in the Castel Sant’Angelo amid the horrors of the sack and the passive experience of hearing and watching Spanish sappers undermining it one correspondent in Rome wrote in horrified anticipation of seeing ‘a pope and a whole flock of cardinals blown into the air by fire’. Most of the cardinals, those not with the Pope in the safety of the castle, fared much worse in the terrible months of May and June 1527, suffering torture and mockery to extort from them money and valuables, not only from the landsknechts but also from the Spanish captains whom some had paid handsomely for protection. Few offered physical resistance, in spite of their well-stocked armouries, guards and military retainers. An exception may have been Cardinal Giovanni Piccolomini, who probably considered himself untouchable, having a solidly pro-imperial and pro-German family background from his great uncle Pius II onwards. Nevertheless, according to one of the most reliable accounts – a letter of Cardinal Scaramuccia Trivulzio of Como to his secretary, sent later from Civitavecchia – Piccolomini suffered twice over. After he had bought off the Spaniards, the cardinal’s palace was then assaulted by landsknechts. Since the latter were said to have kept up the attack for four hours before the cardinal surrendered, it sounds as though there was counter-fire from within, and the dead piled up on both sides. Cardinal Piccolomini was paraded through the streets, bareheaded and in a shabby garment, kicked and punched and forced to make another ransom payment, before gaining refuge with Cardinal Pompeo Colonna.

In December 1527 Clement eventually bought his escape to Orvieto, and by then could again pin some hope on relief by the forces of the League of Cognac. For a French army, led by Odette de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, had gained much success in Lombardy and Emilia early in 1528 it advanced down the Adriatic coast it won many more victories before laying siege to Naples in April. There Lautrec was deadlocked. The city, defended by imperial forces, was still holding out in August when Lautrec himself died of disease the remnants of his army had to withdraw northwards. Once again fortuna had been cruel to the Pope. Or had the papacy met its deserts as the victim of military force, hoist by its own petard after itself sponsoring so much war and slaughter?

The debate about the sack of Rome – whether it represented scandalous sacrilege and disaster or a providential judgement of God on a corrupted body – was only just beginning. One writer in the court of Charles V, Erasmus’s friend Juan de Valdés, made a pretty clear case for the latter point of view, in a polemical dialogue that attacked the whole concept of papal war and deplored all the horrors it had perpetrated. The protagonist, called Lactancio, is answered by an apologetic archdeacon, who uses the old argument of necessary defence of the Church at one point he concedes, ‘I agree that all those things are very cruel, but the people of Italy would look down on a pope who didn’t wage war. They would think it a great insult if a single inch of Church land were lost.’

Whether or not there was any truth in the fictitious archdeacon’s assertion, it is paradoxical that, relatively soon after Clement VII’s return to Rome in October 1528 and reconciliation with Charles V in the Treaty of Barcelona (29 June 1529), the Pope seems to have recovered more purpose than he had shown for years. Charles, not without a tinge of remorse for what had happened, now stood as guarantor of both the papal lands in Italy and of a Medici principate in Florence, to replace the popular republic that had been set up there in 1527. After the successful imperial siege of Florence (1529–30) and final overthrowal of the republic, Clement endeavoured to take a strong line with cities in the papal state that had again tried to throw off papal rule during the period of crisis. Ancona was one example. On the strength of allegations that Ancona was threatened by Turkish naval attack – allegations strongly denied by the city’s own ambassadors – he sent a force to take it in 1532, suppressed the ancient civic constitution and appointed as cardinal legate and governor Benedetto Accolti. Archbishop of Ravenna and a papal secretary since 1523, Accolti had been made a cardinal in 1527, and commanded a troop of 4000 Spanish infantry in the siege of Florence. At Ancona he supervised the building of a new fortress complete with its own gun foundry, and his government was reputedly so oppressive that he was eventually removed and put on trial under Clement’s successor. His interests appear to be neatly expressed by the inventory of his possessions, drawn up after his arrest in 1535, where scarcely any devotional objects, books or works of art are listed (one of the few exceptions was a portrait of Julius II), but several swords and daggers and six or seven handguns.

Perugia also had to be dealt with. Clement appointed as legate in Umbria his second cousin Ippolito de’ Medici, the bastard son of Giuliano, Duke of Nemours, who had been raised to the purple at the age of eighteen in January 1529. The purpose of his legation was to dispossess Malatesta Baglioni of Perugia, who was then serving the republic of Florence as military commander against the besieging imperial and papal army. Ippolito never went there, and delegated the administration to a series of vice-legates, the first of whom in 1529–30 was Ennio Filonardi, Bishop of Veroli, but the condition of Perugia deteriorated and reached a point of crisis under Clement’s successor.

Ippolito de’ Medici’s opportunity for greater glory came in 1532 when he was sent as papal ambassador to Charles V’s brother Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary. Ippolito arrived in Ratisbon (modern Regensburg) with a retinue of five prelates, ten secretaries and an armed guard of thirty to forty gentlemen, most of whom were former military captains, and with 5000 ducats in hand with which to enrol troops. His office was extended to that of papal legate to Ferdinand’s army against the Turks in Hungary, and the Venetian ambassador reported on 1 September that he had set off by boat down the Danube accompanied by ten gunners (arquebusieri). Ippolito was described as ‘dressed like Jupiter’ – modified in a subsequent letter to ‘wearing military habit’. Unfortunately, a portrait by Titian showing him in full armour does not survive Vasari mentions it in his life of the artist as painted at Bologna at the same time as the well-known portrait of the Cardinal in the costume of a Turkish warrior (which it seems unlikely that he was wearing on the above occasion). Ippolito intended to select horses at Vienna and proceed at once to the battlefront, but when he reached the imperial army, which was on full alert, the Turks on the other side of the river made no move. Eventually the campaign was called off and Ippolito was said to have expressed his disappointment with such rage that Ferdinand imprisoned him for a day. The Mantuan agent in Rome, Fabrizio Peregrino, whose graphic and opinionated dispatches will frequently be quoted in the following pages, heard of this episode and commented that Ippolito had wanted madly to play the part of a war captain (‘voleva pazzamente fare il capitano di guerra’). After the papal election in 1534 he quickly left the Apostolic Palace and planned to leave Rome altogether, according to Peregrino, to reduce the expense of maintaining so many military captains and bravi.


Se videoen: Evening in Mandi Ahmad Abad city. Okara @Adnan (Juni 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Alwyn

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  2. Jacquelin

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  3. Crayton

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  4. Faine

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  5. Daire

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  6. Sativola

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