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Største demonstrationer mod krigen - historie

Største demonstrationer mod krigen - historie


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15. november 1969

Største demonstrationer mod krigen

Corretta King på Moratorium

Voksende protester mod krigen resulterede i større og større demonstrationer i hele USA mod krigen. Den 15. oktober 1969 blev landsdækkende strejker indkaldt, og hundredtusinder deltog i hele USA. Den 15. november 1969 blev der afholdt en marts i Washington. Det var den største demonstration mod krigen med 500.000 fremmødte. Ved stævnet sang Pete Seeger "Give Peace a Chance".



Synspunkt: Hvorfor blev den største protest i verdenshistorien ignoreret?

For ti år siden i dag så verden, hvad der efter nogle konti var den største enkeltkoordinerede protest i historien. Men hvorfor blev antikrigsbevægelsen ignoreret?

Folk marcherer uden for Roms Colosseum for at protestere mod krigen i Irak den 15. februar 2003

For ti år siden i dag så verden, hvad der efter nogle konti var den største enkeltkoordinerede protest i historien. Cirka 10 millioner til 15 millioner mennesker (skøn varierer meget) samlet og marcherede i mere end 600 byer: så mange som 3 millioner oversvømmede Roms gader mere end en million samlet i London og Barcelona anslået 200.000 stævner i San Francisco og New York By. Fra Auckland til Vancouver - og overalt imellem - kom titusinder ud og sluttede sig til deres stemme i et enkelt, globalt budskab: nej til Irak -krigen.

Jeg var blandt kontingentet mod krigen, der myldrede på Manhattans midtby den 15. februar 2003, en vinterlig lørdag. Vi spredte os over miles af byblokke og trundlede forbi forladte politibarrikader, da vi forsøgte at tomme mod FN, hvor 10 dage tidligere dengang udenrigsminister Colin Powell havde præsenteret det, vi nu ved var illusorisk efterretning om Iraks formodede masseødelæggelsesvåben. Folkemængderne i New York var forskellige og legio. Der var anarkister og militærveteraner, støjende studerende (jeg var dengang nyuddannet på college) og et broget kast af grånende peaceniks - mange, heriblandt en bedstemor, der huskede at puttere i en kørestol, havde modsat sig amerikansk engagement i Vietnam. Og der var utallige andre: et band af preppy forstæder med bannere, der annoncerede sig selv - "Fodboldmødre mod krigen" - musikere, gadekunstnere og New York -arbejdere i dag. Min onkel, en læge med medicinsk praksis i både Storbritannien og Indien, var fløjet ind til demonstrationen og var bare endnu et ansigt i en stor skare.

Den overvældende følelse på New York ’s gader, på trods af NYPD's grimhed og bid af den eftermiddag i februar, var en af ​​enhed og håb. Der sigtede ord ind om omfanget af demonstrationerne andre steder, og det var svært ikke at sole sig i vores følelse af kollektivt formål. En artikel i New York Gange ville snart basunere: "Der er to supermagter: USA og verdensopinionen." Her er Sofia Fenner, dengang gymnasial senior i Seattle (nu doktorand ved University of Chicago, der i øjeblikket laver afhandlingsarbejde i Kairo): “Jeg var bare stolt over at stå sammen med alle de mennesker, stolt over at vi som dissens Amerikanerne blev ikke hjemme, mens det, der syntes som hele verden, tog vores sag op. ” I Los Angeles gik en gravid Laila Lalami en kilometer med andre demonstranter ned ad Hollywood Boulevard. “Jeg tænkte, ‘Hundertusinder af mennesker i hele USA gør deres stemme hørt. De kan bestemt ikke ignoreres, ”sagde den marokkansk-amerikanske romanforfatter til TIME i denne uge. "Men det var de."

Og der var det. Vi mislykkedes. Lidt mere end en måned senere var USA chokerende og forundrede sig gennem irakiske byer og Saddam Husseins forsvar og sengetøj i - selvom de ikke vidste det endnu - til en næsten decadelong besættelse. Protesterne, som i hvert fald var en verdenshistorisk begivenhed, blev skyllet til side med blid nonchalance af Bush-administrationen og en kongres med gummistempel, der godkendte krigen. FN's Sikkerhedsråd blev omgået, og de stort set ubesværede, imødekommende amerikanske mainstreammedier gjorde lidt ved at dæmpe Washingtons krigsslag.

Et årti senere er det svært at forstå, hvorfor visningen af ​​folkemagt den 15. februar viste sig at være så ineffektiv. Den kanonslyngende retfærdighed i Amerika efter 9/11 har givet plads til et mere ydmygt Vesten, belastet af uafvindelige krige, finansielle kriser og en semipermanent funk af politisk dysfunktion. Desuden har eksplosionen af ​​sociale medier i de seneste år gjort det muligt for tidligere uklare episoder med dissens at nå og omforme den globale samtale. Protester har betydning igen. Offentlige rum - fra Kairos Tahrir -plads til Madrids Puerta del Sol til New Yorks lille Zuccotti -park - blev steder med en fornyet demokratisk vitalitet. Alligevel har de massive antiausteritetsprotester, der har rystet Europa eller endda de største aktioner på Occupy Wall Street, ikke været i stand til at matche omfanget af det, der fandt sted den 15. februar 2003.

Der vil være tid endnu til at gentage begrundelserne bag den USA-ledede invasion af Irak, 10 år efter det faktum. Rækkerne af krigens cheerleaders er blevet tyndere i de mellemliggende år, hvor et væld af journalister og videnskabsfolk i USA tilbød deres mea culpas for at støtte krigen så ubestrideligt. En diktator er væk, men mere end 100.000 irakere er døde, samt 4.804 amerikanske og koalitionssoldater. USA brugte næsten en billion dollars på en præventiv krig, der ikke behøvede at ske, og en nationalopbygningsøvelse, der kun har opnået skrøbelige, usikre gevinster. Langt fra en “ transmission opnået, ” er det amerikanske eventyr i Irak blevet en advarsel om hybris og dårlig planlægning. Det gør det klart, at Vestens nuværende modvilje mod at tage mere direkte skridt til at afslutte Syriens blodige borgerkrig er til dels en arv fra den amerikanske erfaring i Irak, hvor opløsning af et regime affødte en helt ny fase af sekteriske slagtning og kaos.

Men der er ingen tilfredshed med at se tilbage og sige, det sagde jeg dig ” - ikke med det blod, der er spildt og fortsat spildes. Den dybe solidaritet, jeg følte for 10 år siden, er falmet til en form for resignation og sorg. I en så kompleks og politisk volatil region som Mellemøsten er faste moralske holdninger vanskelige. Vores krav var enkle [den 15. februar], og vi havde ret, ” siger Fenner, doktorand ved University of Chicago. Det, jeg ikke vidste på det tidspunkt, var, at når krigen gik i gang, ville intet nogensinde være så enkelt igen. ”

MERE: Er Irak ved at falde fra hinanden?


Antikrigsbevægelse

En voksende amerikansk tab af ulykker og de usikre udsigter til at drive Hanoi ud af krigen konverterede gradvist den næsten enstemmige godkendelse af Tonkin-golfresolutionen fra 1964 til udbredt kongres- og folkelig modstand mod krigen. Duer blev vrede. Demonstrationer mod krigen fandt sted i byerne San Francisco og Chicago.

Flere og flere studerende begyndte at protestere. De ønskede, at krigen sluttede hurtigt. Duer blev vrede. Demonstrationer mod krigen fandt sted i byerne San Francisco og Chicago. Flere og flere studerende begyndte at protestere. De ønskede, at krigen sluttede hurtigt. Modstand mod krigen og til administrationens krigspolitik førte til større og større demonstrationer mod krig. Undersøgelser blev udført for at måle amerikanernes mening om spørgsmålet. I en undersøgelse i juli 1967 sagde lidt mere end halvdelen af ​​de adspurgte, at de ikke godkendte præsidentens politik.

Efter demonstrationen i Pentagon i oktober 1967 sagde House Democratic fioor leder Carl Albert, at marcherne omfattede "hver kommunistisk og kommunistisk sympatisør, der var i stand til at tage turen." Han anklagede også for, at demonstrationen havde været "grundlæggende organiseret af international kommunisme." Den republikanske gulvleder Gerald Ford afslørede derefter, at præsident Johnson på et møde i Det Hvide Hus havde læst for ham og andre republikanske ledere en hemmelig rapport, der afslørede, at demonstrationen var organiseret af international kommunisme. Han bad om, at rapporten skulle offentliggøres. Attorney General Ramsey Clark besøgte Ford og sagde, at rapporten ikke kunne afsløres uden at gå på kompromis med informationskilder og skabe en ny bølge af "McCarthyism". Dette krav blev også fremsat af udenrigsminister Dean Rusk. Ford hævdede, at det amerikanske folk var modent nok til at modtage sådanne oplysninger uden at reagere hysterisk.

Under pres fra Johnson og Nixon White Houses for at afgøre, om der var "fremmed indflydelse" bag antikrigsprotester og sort militant aktivitet, begyndte CIA at indsamle efterretninger om indenlandske politiske grupper. Joseph Califano, hovedassistent for præsident Johnson, vidnede for Senatets Efterretningskomité 27. januar 1976, at højtstående embedsmænd ikke kunne tro, at "en sag, der er så tydelig for landet, som de opfatter den, ville blive angrebet så vidt hvis der ikke var en eller anden [fremmed] styrke bag det. " CIA -direktør Richard Helms vidnede om, at den eneste måde, hvorpå CIA kunne støtte sin konklusion om, at der ikke var nogen væsentlig udenlandsk indflydelse på den indenlandske uenighed, i lyset af vantro i Det Hvide Hus, var løbende at udvide dækningen af ​​CHAOS. Kun ved at kunne påvise, at den havde undersøgt alle antikrigspersoner og alle kontakter mellem dem og enhver fremmed person, kunne CIA "bevise det negative", at ingen var under fremmed dominans.

CIA rapporterede 15. november 1967 "Mangfoldighed er det mest markante enkeltkarakteristik for fredsbevægelsen i ind- og udland. Det er faktisk denne mangfoldighed, der gør det umuligt at knytte specifikke politiske eller ideologiske mærker til nogen væsentlig del af bevægelsen. Mangfoldighed betyder, at der er ikke et enkelt fokus i bevægelsen. Fælles handling på internationalt plan er kun mulig, fordi koordineringen varetages af en lille gruppe dedikerede mænd, de fleste radikalt orienterede, som har volutereret sig selv for aktivt lederskab i nøgleorganisationerne. Bortset fra kontakter med Hanoi -embedsmanden, amerikanske fredsaktivister i det store og hele handler ikke med udenlandske regeringer. Moskva udnytter og kan faktisk påvirke de amerikanske delegater. gennem sine frontorganisationer, men indikationerne - i hvert fald på dette stadie - på skjulte eller åbenlyse forbindelser mellem disse amerikanske aktivister og udenlandske regeringer er begrænsede.

Hovedmekanismen for koordinering af både indenlandske og udenlandske protestaktiviteter i forbindelse med Vietnam var "mobiliseringskomiteen" ["moben"]. Ud af Student Mobilization Committee i 1966 udviklede Spring Mobilization Committee (SMC), som igen blev efterfulgt af den nuværende National Mobilization Committee (NMC). De officerer, der blev udnævnt til NMC's udøvende organer, var mange, hvilket afspejler koalitionens brede base, men det virkelige ansvar syntes at være koncentreret i nogle få hænder. Navnene på disse nøglekoordinatorer dukkede regelmæssigt op, uanset hvor handlingen er tilfældet.

David Dellinger, den førende amerikanske fredsaktivist, udtalte i maj 1963, at han var "en kommunist, men ikke af den sovjetiske type," ifølge en FBI -kilde. Selvom Dellinger aldrig var medlem af et politisk parti, havde han løbende været forbundet med pacifist organisationer siden 1930'erne og senere med det trotskitiske socialistiske arbejderparti og forskellige kommunistiske frontgrupper. Han blev også kendt for sit engagement i pro-Castro-organisationer.

Tæt personlig koordinering mellem amerikanske aktivister og nordvietnameserne ser ud til at være begyndt i 1965. DRV på det tidspunkt inviterede Herbert Aptheker, fremtrædende CPUSA -teoretiker og direktør for American Institute for Marxist Studies, til at besøge Hanoi. Aptheker foreslog igen at blive ledsaget af Staughton Lynd, tidligere Yale -professor og leder af US Committee for Non Violent Action (CNVA), og Thomas Hayden, en militant borgerrettighedsarbejder og grundlægger af SDS. Trioen besøgte Hanoi i december 1965.

NMC, hovedsponsor for fredsdemonstrationen i oktober 1967 i Washington, var en direkte udvækst af Spring Mobilization Committee for at afslutte krigen i Vietnam (SMC). SMC blev dannet for at koordinere demonstrationen i april 1967 mod Vietnamkrigen og udkastet. NMC var ikke en aktionsgruppe. Det er et koordinerende outfit, der er ansvarligt for at formidle information og litteratur til andre fredsgrupper og til offentligheden som helhed. Det koordinerede demonstrationer, opnåede nødvendige tilladelser, forhandlede med civile myndigheder om faciliteter og yder juridisk bistand, når det er nødvendigt. Bortset fra de få betalte professionelle ledere kan NMC simpelthen kategoriseres som en samling af lokale fredsgrupper.

Kommunistisk penetration af organisationen var tydelig på flere niveauer, men NMC var så diversificeret i sin make-up og organisatorisk løs, at det ikke var et let mærke for klassisk kommunistisk manipulation. Mange medlemmer af NMC-ledelsen, herunder formand David Dellinger og næstformand Jerry Rubin, havde kendt og forbundet med kommunister og kommunistfrontgrupper gennem årene. Både Dellinger og Rubin var også stærke tilhængere af Castro og hans bevægelse.

"Amerikansk fred" -bevægelsen "var ikke én, men mange bevægelser, og de involverede grupper er lige så forskellige som de er. Det mest markante enkeltkarakteristik ved fredsfronten er dens mangfoldighed. Under fredsparaplyen finder man pacifister og krigere, idealister og materialister, internationalister og isolationister, demokrater og totalitarer, konservative og revolutionære, kapitalister og socialister, patrioter og subversive, advokater og anarkister, stalinister og trotskitter, muskovitter og pekingesere, racister og universalister, ildsjæle og ikke -troende, puritaner og hippier, dogooders og onde handlinger, ikke -voldelige og meget voldelige. En ting bringer dem alle sammen: deres modstand mod amerikanske handlinger i Vietnam.

"Som et resultat af deres infiltration af ledelsen i centrale fredsgrupper formår kommunisterne at udøve uforholdsmæssig indflydelse på gruppernes politik og handlinger. Det er dog tvivlsomt, at denne indflydelse er kontrollerende. Det meste af 'Vietnams protest aktivitet ville være der med eller uden det kommunistiske element. CPUSA udnytter med andre ord og nyder godt af anti -regeringsaktivitet, men det ser ikke ud til at inspirere det eller styre det. "

FBI-rapportering om protester mod Vietnamkrigen giver et eksempel på den måde, hvorpå oplysningerne til beslutningstagere kan blive skævt. I overensstemmelse med en dom, som allerede var udtrykt af præsident Johnson, understregede Præsidiets rapporter om demonstrationer mod krigen i Vietnam kommunistens bestræbelser på at påvirke antikrigsbevægelsen og underspillede det faktum, at langt de fleste demonstranter ikke var kommunistisk kontrolleret.

RL Shackleford, en sektionschef for FBI -efterretningsafdelingen, sagde til senatets intelligensudvalg 13. februar 1976, at han ikke kunne "tænke på ret mange" store demonstrationer i dette land i de seneste år ", der ikke var forårsaget af" kommunistpartiet eller socialistiske arbejdere Parti. Som svar på afhøring anførte sektionschefen elleve specifikke demonstrationer siden 1965. Tre af disse viste sig hovedsageligt at være SDS -demonstrationer, selv om nogle enkelte kommunister deltog i en af ​​dem. Seks andre blev organiseret af det nationale (eller nye) mobiliseringsudvalg, som sektionschefen erklærede var underlagt kommunistisk og socialistisk arbejderpartis "indflydelse". Men sektionschefen indrømmede, at mobiliseringsudvalget "sandsynligvis" omfattede et bredt spektrum af personer fra alle elementer i det amerikanske samfund. FBI havde ikke påstået, at Socialist Workers Party var domineret eller kontrolleret af nogen udenlandsk regering.

"Falloffensiven" fra 1969, der bragte tusinder af demonstranter til Washington i oktober og november 1969 involverede fire organisationer: Vietnams moratoriumudvalg, studentermobiliseringsudvalget, det nye mobiliseringskomité [New MOBE] og SDS. Formålet med faldoffensiven var at presse administrationen til en øjeblikkelig, ensidig tilbagetrækning af amerikanske tropper fra Vietnam.

Fra fødslen havde Student Mobe været en samlet frontorganisation, en mejetærsker af forskellige grupper, mange åbent kommunistiske, der forenede deres bestræbelser på at trække så mange unge som muligt ind i anti-Vietnam-krigsbevægelsen. I midten af ​​1968 skete der imidlertid en vigtig ændring. Som et resultat af en længe ulmende fejde gik CPUSA-elementet ud i et huff og efterlod de unge "Travere" under kommando. Som J. Edgar Hoover udtalte i 1969, er Student MOBE "kontrolleret af medlemmer af Young Socialist Alliance, ungdomsgruppen for Socialist Workers Party." Siden dannelsen havde Student MOBE tjent som højre arm på den navneskiftende voksne MOBE, organiseret studiestøtte til Vietnam-ugen, Pentagon-konfrontationen osv.

Over 500.000 amerikanere sluttede sig i oktober 1969 til et "moratorium" for at modsætte sig det amerikanske militære engagement i Sydvietnam. En måned senere fandt den største antikrigsdemonstration i USA's historie sted i samme formål i Washington selv. Det nationale moratorium, hvor millioner deltog i den største anti -krigsdemonstration i et vestligt demokrati, Det amerikanske flag ved Justitsministeriet blev trukket ned og - om kun kort - erstattet af Viet Congs flag. Samme dag, 15. november, fandt demonstrationer mod USA i Vietnam sted i mange nationer. Dette var ikke tilfældigt. Det hele var nøje koordineret.

Den nye mobiliseringskomité, teknisk set sponsor for demonstrationerne i Washington den 15. november, kom med mange udsagn om, at den afviste vold og kun ønskede en fredelig, velordnet demonstration. Elevmobilisering gjorde det samme. Moratoriumudvalget havde altid indtaget den holdning. SDS lovede også, at det ikke ville "tilskynde" til vold.

Der er bare ikke nok fuldgyldige kommunistiske partimedlemmer i dette land - også inklusive moskovitterne, pekingeserne, trotskisterne og alle splintgrupperne sammen - til at demonstrere i en sådan størrelse, at det kan have national og international betydning. De hentede ikke -kommunister til deres operationer - mange af dem: de 100 procent medrejsende, der altid kan regnes med at samle sig til sagen, samt de mindre medrejsende, der reagerer på visse spørgsmål, de uafhængige radikaler og ekstremister, de ikke -partimarxister, pacifisterne (især nyttige til "fred" -operationer), fejlindholdene og alle andre, de kan lokke, kæbe eller svinde til at arbejde for deres sag. Det skal imidlertid understreges, at New MOBE ikke var en kommunistisk "front" i traditionel forstand af udtrykket.

Meddelelsen fra præsident Nixon om aftenen den 30. april 1970 om, at han havde godkendt en fælles indtrængning mellem USA og Sydvietnameser i Cambodja, fremkaldte en øjeblikkelig offentlig modreaktion og revitaliserede en antikrigsbevægelse, der støt havde mistet støtte blandt den bredere befolkning som et resultat af elevernes stadig mere voldelige og destruktive taktik.

I maj 1970 startede en tre ugers periode med protester og demonstrationer på universitetscampusser i hele landet, der kulminerede den 4. maj med fire demonstranters død i hænderne på National Guardsmen ved Kent State University. Udbruddet af studenterprotester i hele landet var uden fortilfælde. Med over halvdelen af ​​de mere end 2.500 universiteter og gymnasier, der oplever en form for antikrigsprotest, og anslået 1,5 millioner studerende deltog, repræsenterede det den største række massedemonstrationer i amerikansk historie.

På trods af demonstranternes død i Kent State og ved Jackson State University i Mississippi ti dage senere var protesterne, der berørte universitetscampusser i maj 1970, overvældende fredelige. Ifølge en undersøgelse, af de 1.350 gymnasier og universiteter, der oplevede anti-krigsdemonstrationer i løbet af denne måned, var der kun 73 årsag til vold af enhver form.

Begivenhederne i maj 1970 på universiteter i hele landet var den sidste store gisp af studenterkrigsbevægelsen. Da eleverne tog afsted til sommeren, blev der igen stille på campuserne. Den cambodjanske indtrængen og de deraf følgende protester havde pustet nyt liv i en bevægelse, der havde været på livsstøtte, men det momentum, der var opstået så hurtigt, blev lige pludselig gået i stå. Som en historiker udtrykker det, studenterbevægelsen "kom sig aldrig fra sommerferien 1970."


Indhold

1945 Rediger

  • De første protester mod amerikansk engagement i Vietnam var i 1945, da amerikanske sejlere fra handelsskibe fordømte den amerikanske regering for brug af amerikanske handelsskibe til at transportere europæiske tropper til at "underkaste den indfødte befolkning" i Vietnam. [1]

1963 Rediger

  • Kan. Krigsprotester mod Vietnam i England og Australien.
  • 21. september War Resisters League organiserer den første amerikanske protest mod Vietnamkrigen og "anti-buddhistisk terrorisme" af det USA-støttede sydvietnamesiske regime med en demonstration ved den amerikanske mission til FN i New York City. [2]
  • 9. oktober WRL blandt andre grupper viser 300 pickets mod et talende engagement fra Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu på Waldorf-Astoria-hotellet i New York City. [3]

1964 Rediger

  • Marts. En konference i Yale planlægger demonstrationer den 4. maj.
  • 25. april. Den Intern beskytter offentliggjort et løfte om modstand mod udkast fra nogle af disse arrangører.
  • 2. maj. Hundredvis af studerende demonstrerer på New Yorks Times Square og gik derfra til FN. 700 marcherede i San Francisco. Mindre demonstrationer fandt sted i Boston, Madison, Wisconsin og Seattle. Disse protester blev arrangeret af Progressive Labour Party med hjælp fra Young Socialist Alliance. Det 2. maj Bevægelse var PLP's ungdomsforbund.
  • 12. maj Tolv unge mænd i New York brænder offentligt deres kladder for at protestere mod krigen - den første krigsmodstand. [4] [5]
  • Efterår. Free Speech Movement ved University of California i Berkeley forsvarer de studerendes ret til at gennemføre politisk organisering på campus. Grundlægger: Mario Savio.
  • Begyndelsen af ​​august. Hvide og sorte aktivister samledes nær Philadelphia, Mississippi til mindehøjtidelighed for tre borgerrettighedsarbejdere. En af talerne talte bittert imod Johnsons magtanvendelse i Vietnam og sammenlignede det med vold mod sorte i Mississippi. [6]
  • 19. december. De første koordinerede landsdækkende protester mod Vietnamkrigen omfattede demonstrationer i New York City (sponsoreret af War Resisters League, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Committee for Non-Violent Action, Socialist Party of America og Student Peace Union og deltog i 1500 mennesker), San Francisco (1000 mennesker), Minneapolis, Miami, Austin, Sacramento, Philadelphia, Chicago, Washington DC, Boston, Cleveland og andre byer. [7]

1965 Rediger

  • 2. februar – marts. Protester ved University of Kansas i Lawrence, Kansas arrangeret af RA Student Peace Union. [8]
  • 12. - 16. februar. Anti-U.S. demonstrationer i forskellige byer i verden, "herunder et indbrud på den amerikanske ambassade i Budapest, Ungarn, af omkring 200 asiatiske og afrikanske studerende." [9]
  • 15. marts En debat arrangeret af Inter-University Committee for a Public Hearing om Vietnam afholdes i Washington, D.C. Radio- og tv-dækning.
  • 16. marts En 82-årig Detroit-kvinde ved navn Alice Herz er selvforfalden til at afgive en erklæring mod krigens rædsler. Hun døde ti dage senere. [10]
  • 24. marts Første SDS organiserede undervisning ved University of Michigan i Ann Arbor. 3.000 studerende deltager, og ideen breder sig hurtigt.
  • Marts. Berkeley, Californien: Jerry Rubin og Stephen Smales Vietnam Day Committee (VDC) organiserer en kæmpe protest på 35.000. [citat nødvendig]
  • April. Oklahoma universitetsstuderende sendte hundredtusinder af pjecer med billeder af døde babyer i en kampzone på dem for at skildre et budskab om kampe, der finder sted i Vietnam.
  • 17. april Den SDS-organiserede marts mod Vietnamkrigen mod Washington, DC var den hidtil største demonstration mod krigen i USA med 15.000 til 20.000 mennesker tilstede. Paul Potter kræver en radikal ændring af samfundet.
  • 5. maj Flere hundrede mennesker, der bar en sort kiste, marcherede til Berkeley, Californien, og 40 mænd brændte deres fadkort. [11]
  • 21. - 23. maj. Vietnam Day Committee organiserede stor undervisning i UC Berkeley. 10–30.000 deltager.
  • 22. maj Berkeley -fadbrættet blev besøgt igen, hvor 19 mænd brændte deres kort. Præsident Lyndon B. Johnson blev hængt i billedkunst. [11]
  • Sommer. Unge sorte i McComb, Mississippi får at vide, at en af ​​deres klassekammerater blev dræbt i Vietnam og distribuerer en folder, der sagde "Ingen Mississippi -negre burde kæmpe i Vietnam for den hvide mands frihed". [6]
  • Juni. Richard Steinke, en West Point -kandidat i Vietnam, nægtede at gå ombord på et fly, der tog ham til en fjerntliggende vietnamesisk landsby, idet han udtalte, at krigen "ikke er et eneste amerikansk liv værd". [6]
  • 27. juni. Afslut din tavshed, et åbent brev i New York Times af gruppen Kunstnere og forfattere protesterer mod krigen i Vietnam. [12]
  • Juli. Vietnam Day Committee organiserede militant protest i Oakland, Californien, ender med en grådig debacle, da arrangørerne afslutter marchen fra Oakland til Berkeley for at undgå konfrontation med politiet.
  • Juli. EN Kvinder strejker for fred- delegation ledet af Cora Weiss møder sin nordvietnamesiske og Vietcong -pendant i Jakarta, Indonesien.
  • 30. juli En mand fra den katolske arbejderbevægelse fotograferes brænde sit udkastskort på Whitehall Street på Manhattan foran Armed Forces Induction Center. Hans fotografi vises i Liv blad i august. [13]
  • 15. oktober David J. Miller brændte sit udkastskort ved et stævne igen i nærheden af ​​Armed Forces Induction Center på Whitehall Street. Den 24-årige pacifist, medlem af den katolske arbejderbevægelse, blev den første mand, der blev anholdt og dømt i henhold til 1965-ændringen af ​​lov om selektiv service fra 1948. [14]
  • 15. - 16. oktober.
  • Europa, 15. -16. Oktober. Først Internationale protestdage. Anti-U.S. demonstrationer i London, Rom, Bruxelles, København og Stockholm.
  • 20. oktober Stephen Lynn Smith, en studerende ved University of Iowa, talte til et stævne i Memorial Union i Iowa City, Iowa, og brændte sit fadkort. Han blev anholdt, fundet skyldig og sat på tre års betinget fængsel. [15]
  • 30. oktober Pro-Vietnam-krigs march i New York City bringer 25.000.
  • 2. november Foran Pentagon i Washington, da tusinder af medarbejdere strømmede ud af bygningen sidst på eftermiddagen, stod Norman Morrison, en toogtredive år gammel pacifist, far til tre, under vinduerne på tredje sal af forsvarsminister Robert McNamara, overdøede sig med petroleum og satte sig i brand og opgav sit liv i protest mod krigen. [6]
  • 6. november Thomas C. Cornell, Marc Paul Edelman, Roy Lisker, David McReynolds og James Wilson brændte deres udkastskort ved et offentligt stævne arrangeret af Committee for Non-Violent Action på Union Square, New York City. [16]
  • 27. november SANE-sponsoreret marts i Washington i 1965. 15.000 til 20.000 demonstranter.
  • 16. - 17. december. Gymnasieelever i Des Moines, Iowa, er suspenderet for at have sorte armbånd på for at "sørge over dødsfaldene på begge sider" og til støtte for Robert F. Kennedys opfordring til en julestille. Eleverne stævnede Des Moines School District, hvilket resulterede i 1969 højesteretsafgørelse i USA til fordel for eleverne, Tinker v. Des Moines.

1966 Rediger

  • Fra september 1965 til januar 1970 var 170.000 mand blevet udarbejdet, og yderligere 180.000 blev hvervet. I januar havde 2.000.000 mænd sikret sig college udsættelser.
  • Februar. Lokale kunstnere i Hollywood bygger et 60 fods protesttårn på Sunset Boulevard. [6]
  • 25. - 26. marts. Sekund Dage med international protest. Organiseret af den nationale koordineringskomité for at afslutte krigen i Vietnam, ledet af FORSIND, Kvinder strejker for fred, det Udvalget for Ikke -voldelig Handling og SDS: 20.000 til 25.000 alene i New York, demonstrationer også i Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Chicago, Detroit, San Francisco, Oklahoma City. I udlandet, i Ottawa, London, Oslo, Stockholm, Lyon og Tokyo.
  • 31. marts David Paul O'Brien og tre ledsagere brændte deres fadkort på trinene i South Boston Courthouse. Sagen blev prøvet af Højesteret i USA mod O'Brien.
  • Forår. Præster og lægfolk bekymrede over Vietnam grundlagt.
  • 15. maj. Mod Vietnamkrigen, ledet af SANE og Women Strike for Peace, hvor 8.000 til 10.000 deltog. (Cassius Clay) nægtede at gå i krig og sagde berømt, at han "ikke havde noget skænderi med Viet Cong", og at "ingen Viet Cong nogensinde kaldte mig nigger." Ali udtalte også, at han ikke ville gå "10.000 miles for at hjælpe med at myrde, dræbe og brænde andre mennesker for blot at hjælpe med at fortsætte dominansen af ​​hvide slavemestre over mørke mennesker." [17] I 1967 blev han idømt 5 års fængsel, men blev løsladt i appel af USA's højesteret.
  • Sommer. Seks medlemmer af SNCC invaderer et induktionscenter i Atlanta og bliver senere anholdt. [6]
  • 3. juli Publikum på over 4.000 demonstrerer uden for den amerikanske ambassade i London. Der opstår kampe mellem demonstranterne og politiet, og mindst 31 mennesker bliver anholdt. [18]
  • 10. - 11. september. Første nationale antikrig Mobilisering Udvalg nedsat som mobiliseringsudvalget 8. november.
  • 7. november Protester mod sekretær McNamara ved Harvard University.
  • 26. november Den 8. november Mobiliseringsudvalg bliver Spring Mobilization Committee for at afslutte krigen i Vietnam, formaliseret på Cleveland -konferencen. National direktør er pastor James Bevel.
  • Sidst i december. Elevmobiliseringsudvalg dannet.

1967 Rediger

  • 29. januar - 5. februar Angry Arts Week ved Kunstnere protesterer gruppe.
  • 4. april Martin Luther King Jr. taler i Riverside kirke i New York om krigen: "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence". King udtalte, at "på en eller anden måde må denne galskab ophøre. Vi skal stoppe nu. Jeg taler som Guds barn og bror til de fattige i Vietnam. Jeg taler for dem, hvis land bliver ødelagt, hvis hjem ødelægges, hvis kultur Jeg taler for de fattige i Amerika, der betaler den dobbelte pris for ødelagte håb i hjemmet og død og korruption i Vietnam. taget. Jeg taler som amerikaner til lederne i min egen nation. Det store initiativ i denne krig er vores. Initiativet til at stoppe det må være vores. " [6]
  • 15. april På Sheep Meadow, Central Park, New York City, kom omkring 60 unge mænd, herunder et par studerende fra Cornell University, sammen for at brænde deres fadkort i en Maxwell House -kaffedåse. [19] Flere slutter sig til dem, herunder uniformerede Green Beret Army Reservist Gary Rader. Hele 158 kort er brændt. [20]
  • 15. april Spring Mobe protester i New York City (300.000) og i San Francisco.
  • 20. - 21. maj. 700 aktivister ved forårsmobiliseringskonferencen, Washington, DC Forårsmobiliseringskomiteen for at afslutte krigen i Vietnam bliver den nationale mobiliseringskomité for at afslutte krigen i Vietnam ( Mobe). , Sverige (maj) og Roskilde, Danmark (november_. International krigsforbrydelsesdomstol (Russell Tribunal) unanimously finds the US government and its armed forces "guilty of the deliberate, systematic and large-scale bombardment of civilian targets, including civilian populations, dwellings, villages, dams, dikes, medical establishments, leper colonies, schools, churches, pagodas, historical and cultural monuments".
  • June 1. The Vietnam Veterans Against the War dannes. Veteran Jan Barry Crumb participated in a protest on April 7 called the "Fifth Avenue Peace Parade" in New York City. On May 30 Crumb and ten like-minded men attended a peace demonstration in Washington, D.C.
  • June 23. The Bond, the first G.I.underjordisk paper established. [21]
  • June 23. 1,300 police attack 10,000 peace marchers at The Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles, where President Lyndon B. Johnson was being honored.
  • In the summer of 1967, Neil Armstrong and various other NASA officials began a tour of South America to raise awareness for space travel. Ifølge First Man, a biography of Armstrong's life, during the tour, several South American college students protested the astronaut, and shouted such phrases as "Murderers get out of Vietnam!" and other anti-Vietnam War messages.
  • October 16. A day of widespread war protest organized by The Mobe in 30 cities across the U.S., with some 1,400 draft cards burned. [22]
  • October 18. "Dow Day", University of Wisconsin–Madison. This was the first university Vietnam War protest to turn violent. Thousands of students protested Dow Chemical (maker of napalm) recruiting on campus. Nineteen police officers and about 50 students were treated for injuries at hospitals. [23] [24]
  • October 20. Resist leaders present draft cards to the Department of Justice, Washington, D.C. .
  • October 21–23. National Mobe organized the March on the Pentagon to Confront the War Makers. 100,000 are at the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington DC, 35,000 (or up to 50,000?) go on to the Pentagon, some to engage in acts of civil disobedience. Norman Mailer's The Armies of the Night describes the event.
  • October 27. Father Philip Berrigan, a Josephite priest and World War II veteran, led a group now known as the Baltimore Four who went to a draft board in Baltimore, Maryland, drenched the draft records with blood, and waited to be arrested. [6]
  • December 4. National draft card turn-in. At San Francisco's Phillip Burton Federal Building, some 500 protesters witnessed 88 draft cards collected and burned. [11]
  • December 4–8. Stop the Draft Week demonstrations in New York. 585 arrested, amongst them Benjamin Spock.
  • Sweden, December 20. Seventh Year of the Viet Cong (the Front National de Libération du Vietnam du Sud, eller FNL) celebrated with violent clashes in Stockholm. Demonstrations in forty Swedish towns.

1968 Rediger

  • Peace Corps volunteers in Chile spoke out against the war. 92 volunteers defied the Peace Corps director and issued a circular denouncing the war. [6]
  • January. Singer Eartha Kitt, while at a luncheon at the White House, spoke out against the war and its effects on the youth, exclaiming, "you send the best of this country off to be shot and maimed," to her fellow guests. "They rebel in the street. They will take pot. and they will get high. They don't want to go to school because they're going to be snatched off from their mothers to be shot in Vietnam." [25]
  • January 15. Jeannette Rankin leads a demonstration of thousands of women in Washington, D.C. .
  • London, Sunday, March 17. Violent protest in London (street occupation), not supported by the Old Left. Over 300 arrests.
  • Frankfurt, Germany, April 2. Gudrun Ensslin and Andreas Baader, joined by Thorwald Proll and Horst Söhnlein, set fire to two department stores.
  • April 3. National draft-card turn-in. About 1,000 draft cards were turned in. In Boston, 15,000 protesters watched 235 men turn in their draft cards. [22]
  • April 4. Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. silences one of the leading voices against the war.
  • Late April. Student Mobe sponsored national student strike, demonstrations in New York and San Francisco.
  • April–May. Protesters occupy five buildings at Columbia University. Future leading Weather Underground member Mark Rudd gains prominence.
  • Berlin, Germany, April 11. Rudi Dutschke shot and wounded. Massive riots against Axel Springer publishers.
  • May. FBI's COINTELPRO campaign launched against the New Left.
  • May. Agricultural Building at Southern Illinois University (SIU) bombed.
  • May 1. Boston University graduate Philip Supina wrote to his draft board in Tucson, Arizona, that he had "absolutely no intention to report for [his] exam, or for induction, or to aid in any way the American war effort against the people of Vietnam." [6]
  • May 17. Philip Berrigan and his brother, Daniel, led seven others into a draft board office in Catonsville, Maryland, removed records, and set them afire with homemade napalm outside in front of reporters and onlookers. [6]
  • June 4–5. The hope of the antiwar movement, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy, is shot after celebrating victory in the California primary. He dies the next morning, June 6.
  • Late June. Student Mobe ruptures.
  • August 28. Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Police Violence.
  • October 14, 1968. Presidio mutiny sit-down protest carried out by 27 military prisoners at the U.S. Army's Presidio stockade in San Francisco, California.
  • October 21. In Japan, a group of 290,000 activists occupied the Shinjuku Station, protesting an earlier incident in August 1967 where a JNR freight train hauling kerosene to the Tachikawa Airbase collided with another train and exploded. The activists managed to disrupt all railway traffic at the station and led to clashes with riot police and acts of vandalism it was the largest anti-war protest in Japan at the time.
  • November 14. National draft-card turn-in.

1969 Rediger

  • The whole year major campus protests take place across the country.
  • January 19–20. Protests against Richard Nixon's inauguration.
  • March 22. Nine protesters smashed glass, hurled files out a fourth floor window, and poured blood on files and furniture at the Dow Chemical offices in Washington, D.C.
  • March 29. Conspiracy charges against eight suspected organizers of the Chicago Convention protests.
  • April 5–6. Antiwar demonstrations and parades in several cities, New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C. and others.
  • May 21. Silver Spring Three Les Bayless, John Bayless, and Michael Bransome walked into a Silver Spring, Maryland Selective Service office where they destroyed several hundred draft records to protest the war.
  • Juni. At the Brown University commencement, two-thirds of the graduating class turned their backs when Henry Kissinger stood up to address them. [6]
  • June 8. The Old Main building at SIU burns to the ground. Units of firefighters from all over the area tried to salvage the building but could not put out the fire before everything was destroyed. [26]
  • Juni. Chicago. SDS national convention. The SDS disintegrates into SDS-WSA and SDS. The Worker Student Alliance of the Progressive Labor Party (PLP) has the majority of delegates (900) on its side. Den mindre Revolutionary Youth Movement fraction (500) divide into RYM-I/Weatherman, who retained control of the SDS National Office, and maoist RYM-II. This fraction will further divide into the various groups of New Communist Movement.
  • July 4–5. Cleveland: national antiwar conference established National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam.
  • October 8–11. Weatherman's disastrous Days of Rage in Chicago. Only 300 militants show up, not the expected 10,000. 287 will be arrested.
  • October 15. National Moratorium against the War demonstrations. Huge crowds in Washington and in Boston (100,000). Anti-war Senator George McGovern gave a speech to the large crowd in Boston. [27]
  • November 15. The Mobe's Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam mobilizes 500,000. March against Death, Washington DC.
  • November 15. San Francisco. [præcisering nødvendig]
  • November 26. Selective Service System (draft-lottery) bill signed.
  • December 1. The Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries
  • December 7. The 5th Dimension performs their song "Declaration" on the Ed Sullivan Show. Consisting of the opening of the Declaration of Independence (through "for their future security"), it suggests that the right and duty of revolting against a despotic government is still relevant.

1970 Rediger

  • February, March. Wave of bombings across the US.
  • Marts. Antidraft protests across the US.
  • March 14. SS Columbia Eagle incident: Two American merchant marine sailors, Clyde McKay and Alvin Glatkowski, seized the SS Columbia Eagle and forced the master to sail in to Cambodia as opposed to Thailand, where it was on its way to deliver napalm bombs to be used by the US Air Force in Vietnam.
  • March 30: About 100 people protest in Albany, New York against the draft. [28]
  • April. New Mobe, Moratorium og SMC protests across the country.
  • April 4. A right-wing Victory March. organized by Reverend Carl McIntire calls for victory in the Vietnam War. 50,000 attend.
  • April 19: Moratorium announces disbanding.
  • May 2: violent anti-war rallies at many universities. , Ohio, May 4: Kent State Shootings: U.S. National Guard kill four young people during a demonstration. As a result, four million students go on strike at more than 450 universities and colleges. The best-known cultural response to the deaths at Kent State was the protest song "Ohio", written by Neil Young for Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.
  • May 8, New York. Hard Hat Riot: after a student anti-war demonstration, workers attack them and riot for two hours.
  • May 8. Jim Cairns, a member of the Australian parliament, led over 100,000 people in a demonstration in Melbourne. [27] Smaller protests were also held on the same day in every state capital of Australia.
  • May 9. Mobe sponsored Kent State/Cambodia Incursion Protest, Washington, D.C. between 75,000 and 100,000 demonstrators converged on Washington, D.C. to protest the Kent State shootings and the Nixon administration's incursion into Cambodia. Even though the demonstration was quickly put together, protesters were still able to bring out thousands to march in the National Mall in front of the Capitol. It was an almost spontaneous response to the events of the previous week. Police ringed the White House with buses to block the demonstrators from getting too close to the executive mansion. Early in the morning before the march, Nixon met with protesters briefly at the Lincoln Memorial.
  • May 14, Jackson State College. Jackson State killings: Two dead and twelve injured during violent protests.
  • May 20, New York. An estimated 60,000 to 150,000 are at a pro-war demonstration on Wall Street.
  • May 28, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennesse. Nixon at Billy Graham Crusade in Neyland Stadium. 800 students carry "Thou Shalt Not Kill" signs into the stadium. Many are arrested and charged with "disrupting a religious service" with only Republican candidates on the stage with Graham and Nixon. [29]
  • Juni. Before a commencement at the University of Massachusetts, students stenciled red fists of protests, white peace symbols, and blue doves onto their black gowns. [6] , August 24. Sterling Hall bombing: aimed at the Army Math Research Center on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th floors of the building, in missing its target, a Ford van packed with explosives hit the physics laboratory on the first floor and killed young researcher Robert Fassnacht and seriously injured another person.
  • August 29, Chicano Moratorium. 20–30,000 Mexican-Americans participated in the largest antiwar demonstration in Los Angeles. Police are attacked with clubs and guns and kill three people, including Rubén Salazar, a TV news director and LA Times reporter. [30]

1971 Rediger

  • March 1. Weathermen plants a bomb in the Capitol building in Washington, D.C., causing $300,000 in damage, but no casualties. [citat nødvendig]
  • April. Det Vancouver Indo-Chinese Women's Conference (VICWC), a six-day protest, gathers close to a thousand women in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  • April 19–23. Vietnam Veterans against the War (VVAW) stages operation Dewey Canyon III. 1,000 camping on the National Mall. [31]
  • April 22–28. Veterans Against the War (and John Kerry) testify before various congressional panels. [citat nødvendig]
  • April 24. Peaceful Vietnam War Out Now rally on the National Mall, Washington, D.C., with 200,000-500,000 [32][33] calling for an end to the Vietnam War, 156,000 participate in the largest demonstration so far on the West Coast, in San Francisco. [31]
  • April 26. More militant attempts in Washington, D.C. to shut down the government are futile against 5,000 police and 12,000 troops. [citat nødvendig]
  • May 3–5, May Day Protests. Planned by Rennie Davis and Jerry Coffin of the War Resisters League, later joined by Michael Lerner militant mass-action tries to shut down the government in Washington, D.C. 12,614 arrested, a record in American history. [citat nødvendig]
  • August. A group of nuns, priests, and laypeople raid a draft board in Camden, New Jersey. They came to be known as the Camden 28. [citat nødvendig]
  • December. VVAW protests across the USA. [citat nødvendig]

1972 Rediger

  • April 15–20. May. New waves of protests across the country. [citat nødvendig]
  • April 17. Militant anti-ROTC demonstration at the University of Maryland. 800 National Guardsmen are ordered onto the campus. [citat nødvendig]
  • April 22. Mass antiwar demonstrations sponsored by National Peace Action Coalition, People's Coalition for Peace and Justice, and other organizations attracted an estimated 100,000 people in New York and 12,000 in Los Angeles, 25,000 in San Francisco and other cities around the US and the world. [34][35][36] , Germany, May 11. Headquarters of the V Corps of the U.S. Army at the IG Farben Building: The Commando Petra Schelm of the Rote Armee Fraktion killed U.S. Officer Paul Bloomquist and wounded thirteen in a bombing attack. [37]
  • May 21. Emergency March on Washington, D.C., organized by the National Peace Action Coalition and the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice. 8 to 15,000 protest in Washington, D.C. against the increased bombing of North Vietnam and the mining of its harbors. [citat nødvendig]
  • Heidelberg, Germany, May 24. The Red Army Faction detonates two car bombs at the European Headquarters of the US Army, killing three. [38]
  • June 22. Ring around Congress demonstration, Washington, D.C. [citat nødvendig]
  • I juli. Jane Fonda visits North Vietnam and speaks on Hanoi Radio, earning herself the nickname "Hanoi Jane". [citat nødvendig]
  • August 22. 3,000 protest against the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. Ron Kovic, a wheelchair-bound Vietnam veteran, led fellow veterans into the Convention Hall, wheeled down the aisles, and as Nixon began his acceptance speech shouted, "Stop the bombing! Stop the war!" [6]
  • October 14. The "Peace March to End the Vietnam War" was held in San Francisco. This "silent-march" demonstration began at City Hall and moved down Fulton Street to Golden Gate Park, where speeches were given. Over 2,000 were in attendance. Numerous groups (including many veterans) marched to support the so-called "7-Point" plan to peace. George McGovern had given a speech at the Cow Palace the night before, which energized the Saturday morning event. [39]
  • November 7. General election day. President Nixon defeats George McGovern in a landslide election victory, with 60.7% popular votes and 520 electoral votes.
  • December. Protests against Hanoi and Haiphong bombings. [citat nødvendig]

1973 Rediger

There are many pro- and anti-war slogans and chants. Those who used the anti-war slogans were commonly called "doves" those who supported the war were known as "hawks" [ citat nødvendig ]


The Largest Protest Ever Was 15 Years Ago. The Iraq War Isn’t Over. What Happened?

Fifteen years ago, on Feb. 15, 2003, somewhere between 6 million to 11 million people turned out in at least 650 cities around the world to protest the United States’ push to invade Iraq. It was the largest anti-war protest and remains the largest one-day global protest the world has ever seen.

Today, there are still 5,000 U.S. soldiers in Iraq and continued war on terror operations in close to a dozen other Middle Eastern, Central Asian and African nations. The war is ongoing. The anti-war movement, practically speaking, is not. Hvad skete der?

One explanation is that the anti-war push of 2003-2007 was successful — not in ending the war, but in knocking out the political party that started it.

The anti-war movement was not purely an anti-war movement, as Indiana University professor Fabio Rojas pointed out. He described the anti-war protest movement as “two groups coming together”: the core peace movement and the larger group of people who were registered Democrats and opposed to the Iraq war and then-Republican President George W. Bush, in general.

“Once the Democrats win the White House,” he said, “the two groups start moving apart.”

Rojas studied the protest movement and its decline with University of Michigan political science professor Michael Heaney. After attending dozens of protests where they conducted more than 10,000 surveys of anti-war protest participants over the course of a decade, the two professors wrote a book, Party in the Street: The Antiwar Movement and the Democratic Party After 9/11, to explain it.

“When you study a massive social movement there is never one single factor, but what we do argue is a big factor is the turnover in party,” Rojas told HuffPost.

To understand the decline of the anti-war movement, you have to look at the different stages of its development. The initial movement began as a relatively small group formed immediately after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in opposition to the Oct. 7, 2001, invasion of Afghanistan. This was at a time when voicing anti-war sentiment was intensely unpopular and viewed in many quarters as outright treason.

“It was very dangerous for a while to be anti-war,” Phyllis Bennis, director of the Internationalism Project at the progressive Institute for Policy Studies, said, noting that Rep. Barbara Lee (D-Calif.), the only lawmaker to vote against the war on terror authorization, needed added security due to an increased volume of death threats.

The shift to a broader anti-war protest movement occurred as the Bush administration made clear its intentions to invade Iraq, a country that had no connection to the 9/11 attacks. Over the course of 2002, protests in the U.S. and around the world drew larger and larger crowds, up to the peak of the Feb. 15, 2003 protests.

Those protests occurred as the U.S., Britain and Spain pushed for a second resolution from the United Nations Security Council to approve an Iraq invasion. Ten days earlier, Colin Powell, then the secretary of state, had made his notorious presentation outlining the evidence that then-Iraqi President Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. Powell’s evidence would later turn out to be entirely false.

For this reason, the site of the United Nations in New York City marked the center of the protest. In freezing temperatures, somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 protesters stretched along 30 or 40 city blocks on First Avenue. Organizers included the umbrella peace group United for Peace and Justice, the socialist group International ANSWER and a host of labor unions, environmental groups and progressive organizations like MoveOn.org.

Bennis connected protesters with the leadership of the United Nations to deliver their message. As the protest played out on the street, Bennis, actor and activist Harry Belafonte and Archbishop Desmond Tutu met with then-U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan inside U.N. headquarters. Here Tutu told his old friend Annan that, on behalf of the protesters, “We claim the United Nations as our own.”

The U.S. quickly dropped its push for a second resolution that would have provided legitimacy for a war. President George W. Bush said that he could care less about protests, which he dismissed as a “focus group.” The protest organizers cheered their success in preventing a second resolution at the U.N.

But 33 days later, the U.S. and its “Coalition of the Willing” commenced a “shock and awe” bombing campaign and invaded Iraq. In 2004, Annan declared that the war, which never gained a legitimate stamp of approval from the U.N., was “illegal.” High-intensity protest mobilization continued, plateauing in 2007 and then attenuating over the next few years.

“The anti-war movement was pretty well sustained from 2003 through about 2006,” Heaney, the University of Michigan professor, told HuffPost. “During that time there were multiple large demonstrations. There was also coordinated activity and lobbying. There were numerous active coalitions. Lots of grassroots mobilization in numerous cities. It was a pretty big movement.”

Whereas anti-war protests brought out thousands of participants while Bush was president, participation collapsed with the 2008 election of Barack Obama. In their surveys of protest participants, Heaney and Rojas found that protesters cited anti-Bush and anti-Republican Party sentiment as among the top three issues until Obama was elected. After, this partisan-inflected sentiment did not crack the top 20 in reasons people attended the protests. This can be attributed to the fact that the people who were there to protest Bush and the Republicans simply stopped coming to protests, leaving behind the core anti-war movement activists, according to Rojas.

It is not as though this reveals some deep hypocrisy on the part of individuals with a partisan affiliation with the Democratic Party. By and large these people did not just oppose the Iraq War because a Republican president waged it or suddenly switch their position when Democrats won.

“They did [left behind the protests] for any of a variety of reasons,” Heaney said. “It could be that they felt that Barack Obama would deal with the war. It could be that they were attracted to other issues, like immigration and health care.”

Indeed, there were other developments around the time that the movement began to fizzle. The global economic crisis began in 2007, leaving many protesters with more immediate concerns — how to keep their job or house, for instance.

“One impact of the economic crisis, you have a whole set amount of people put their main political energy into the anti-war movement who suddenly were faced with an economic crisis they had never experienced,” Bennis said.

The prospect of unified Democratic control of the White House, and Congress also opened up possibilities for legislation on health care and immigration. In some cases, institutional support by groups linked to the Democratic Party ― labor unions, environmental groups and MoveOn.org ― was diverted from the anti-war cause to these issues. For many partisan Democrats, their attention shifted as well.

Meanwhile, Obama, who as an Illinois state senator voiced opposition to the war in Iraq at a protest in 2002, in many ways continued the war on terror policies of the Bush administration after he gained the presidency. He did eventually draw down troop levels in Iraq, but he increased them in Afghanistan, as he had promised to do in his 2008 campaign. He ramped up drone strikes in Pakistan and Yemen, which even killed an American teenager who had committed no crime.

You may be tempted to think, then, that the Feb. 15 protest and the movement around it were ultimately fruitless. Any number of commenters have said as much. Bennis argued that that isn’t quite right.

“There was a lot of talk afterwards that this just proves protest is useless,” Bennis said. “I think that was really wrong, because it didn’t take into account what came next. There were a number of impacts from that protest that we are still feeling today.”

The clearest political impacts of the global protests occurred outside of the United States.

In Spain, which saw one of the highest-attended protests on Feb. 15, 2003, conservatives who backed the Iraq War lost the next election. In Britain, where 1 million people turned out in London on Feb. 15, the Labour Party has undergone a massive shift in power from the pro-war Tony Blair to Jeremy Corbyn, one of the leaders of the anti-war protests in 2003.

In Egypt, progressive activists noticed the lack of protest in their country on Feb. 15 and organized their own spontaneous protest that brought out tens of thousands on the day the U.S. invasion began. Those same activists helped launch the 2011 Tahrir Square protests that brought down the presidency of Hosni Mubarak. (They are also now the targets of the current U.S.-aligned government of President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi.)

The protests surely had an effect on policy here in the United States, where the public has been far less interested in starting new wars since Iraq. When Obama sought authorization from Congress to bomb Syria, heavy grassroots opposition re-emerged in phone calls to lawmakers demanding that they oppose the action. Even in the Republican Party, opposition to the Iraq War, however illusory, helped Donald Trump win his party’s nomination.

Bennis said that the starting point of conversations about war no longer defaults to support. “Now it’s moving towards the other way around,” she said. “It’s not quite there yet, but it’s moving in that direction. And Feb. 15 was a huge part of why.”


Spansk-amerikanske krig

Harry Gannes of the All-American Anti-Imperialist League speaking to a crowd.

NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images

With the United States finally emerging from an economic depression following the Panic of 1893, American business leaders feared war with Spain would lead to inflation and threaten the gold standard. “The anti-war class comprises those who are engaged in the creation and distribution of the national wealth—the industrialist, the merchant, the railroad investor,” reported the New York Journal of Commerce in March 1898.

Prominent politicians, academics, authors and businessmen who also had moral concerns about the Spanish-American War formed the Anti-Imperialist League in June 1898 to protest the annexation of the Philippines as a violation of American ideals. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and Grover Cleveland were among the organization’s 500,000 members. The league failed, however, to stop the annexation of the Philippines, which led to a three-year counterinsurgency that claimed tens of thousands of lives.


April 24, 1971: Anti-War Protests in D.C. and San Francisco

On April 24, 1971, 500,000 people demonstrated against the Vietnam War in Washington, D.C. It was the largest-ever demonstration opposing a U.S. war. Simultaneously, 150,000 people marched at a rally in San Francisco.

Prior to the massive rally, Vietnam Veterans Against the War staged a week-long series of demonstrations culminating in a protest at the U.S. Capitol where veterans threw back their service medals.

During the weeks following the April 24 protest, massive civil disobedience was conducted attempting to shut down the U.S. government during the People’s Coalition for Peace & Justice and Mayday demonstrations.

A Vietnam veteran hurls his service recognition memorabilia toward the U.S. Capitol April 23, 1971.
That morning more than 800 veterans individually tossed their medals, ribbons, discharge papers, and other war mementos on the steps of the Capitol, rejecting the Vietnam War and the significance of those awards. Source: Washington Area Spark

Find teaching resources below, including a 100-page teaching guide from the Zinn Education Project on the long history of Vietnam War, the anti-war movement, and whistleblowers.

Related Resources

Teaching the Vietnam War: Beyond the Headlines

Teaching Activity. By the Zinn Education Project. 100 pages.
Eight lessons about the Vietnam War, Daniel Ellsberg, the Pentagon Papers, and whistleblowing.

“We Will Not Be Part of this Unjust, Immoral, and Illegal War”: Remembering the Fort Hood Three

On June 30, 1966, dozens of people assembled in the basement auditorium of the Community Church for a big announcement. All of them gathered to hear the words of three soldiers, Privates David Samas and Dennis Mora, and Private First Class James A. Johnson. The G.I.’s convened the press conference to perform a bold act: they intended to refuse their orders to go fight.

The Boys Who Said No

Film. Directed by Judith Ehrlich. 2020. A documentary uses interviews and found footage to tell the inspiring story and impact of the anti-Vietnam War draft resistance movement.

April 15, 1967: Massive Anti-Vietnam War Demonstrations

Amidst growing opposition to the U.S. war in Vietnam, large-scale anti-war protests were held in New York, San Francisco, and many other cities.

April 17, 1965: Largest Anti-War Protest

One of the largest anti-war protest was held in Washington, D.C.

April 23, 1968: Columbia Student Occupation

Students for a Democratic Society, Student Afro-American Society and others began a nonviolent occupation of campus buildings at Columbia University.

Apr. 26, 1968: Kiyoshi Kuromiya Led Protest of Vietnam War Napalm

Lifelong gay rights and anti-war activist Kiyoshi Kuromiya held a demonstration while in college against the use of napalm in Vietnam by announcing that a dog would be burned alive with napalm in front of the university library.

Aug. 29, 1970: Chicano Moratorium and Murder of Journalist Ruben Salazar

The National Chicano Moratorium March was held to protest the Vietnam War and Latino journalist Ruben Salazar was killed.

Aug. 21, 1971: Anti-war Protesters Raid Draft Offices

Twenty anti-war protesters were arrested for breaking into selective service offices and destroying draft records.


In 1997, two years after the Million Man March, anywhere from 500,000 to 2 million people convened for the Million Woman March. The event, which was held on a rainy Saturday in 1997, included prayer, musical performances, and speeches by local organizers and civil rights activists.

As a protest to George W. Bush's decision to invade Iraq, between 10 to 15 million people marched in 600 cities across the world in 2003. At least 500,000 people protested in American cities, including New York City, Los Angeles, and Seattle.

It's known as the biggest protest in world history.


Thousands protest the war in Vietnam

In Washington, D.C. nearly 100,000 people gather to protest the American war effort in Vietnam. More than 50,000 of the protesters marched to the Pentagon to ask for an end to the conflict. The protest was the most dramatic sign of waning U.S. support for President Lyndon Johnson’s war in Vietnam. Polls taken in the summer of 1967 revealed that, for the first time, American support for the war had fallen below 50 percent.

When the Johnson administration announced that it would ask for a 10 percent increase in taxes to fund the war, the public’s skepticism increased. The peace movement began to push harder for an end to the war—the march on Washington was the most powerful sign of their commitment to this cause. The Johnson administration responded by launching a vigorous propaganda campaign to restore public confidence in its handling of the war. The president even went so far as to call General William Westmoreland, commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam, back to the United States to address Congress and the public. The effort was somewhat successful in tempering criticisms of the war. However, the Tet Offensive of early 1968 destroyed much of the Johnson Administration’s credibility concerning the Vietnam War.

The protest was also important in suggesting that the domestic Cold War consensus was beginning to fracture. Many of the protesters were not simply questioning America’s conduct in Vietnam, but very basis of the nation’s Cold War foreign policy.


In November of 1969, D.C. saw the largest anti-war protest in America’s history. Between 500,000 and 600,000 rallied to peacefully protest the Vietnam War. In true flower-power style, the youthful crowd sang John Lennon’s “Give Peace a Chance.” This was one of many anti-war demonstrations in D.C., the movement continued to grow until the U.S. left Vietnam in 1973.

Conservative estimates show this march might have fallen short of its name with only 450,000 marchers, but other estimates put the crowd at 1.1 million. The Million Man March took place October 16, 1995. It was the answering to Louis Farrakhan for African-American men to gather on the National Mall and accept the responsibility of being the head of the family. There were no arrests or violence on the day of the march.


Se videoen: Racistisk kvinde tiltaler neger og sviner en kvinde til i toget (Juni 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Eusebius

    meget god tænkning

  2. Lufti

    Jeg kan sige meget om dette emne.

  3. Bax

    Sagen er fjernet

  4. Jazzalyn

    Valg på dig urolig

  5. Joosep

    Du har fuldstændig ret. Der er noget i dette, og jeg synes, dette er en god ide. Jeg er enig med dig.

  6. Jeramy

    den meget interessante sætning



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