Historie Podcasts

Temple Gateway

Temple Gateway


Gåden om Shushan -porten

De 70 lange år med det babylonske eksil var slut. Darius, den velvillige persiske konge, søn af dronning Esther og kong Achashverosh, gav sine jødiske undersåtter tilladelse til at vende tilbage til Zion og genopbygge deres tempel.1 Mishna fortæller os, at de tilbagevendende jøder lavede en gravering af Shushan, 2 hovedstaden i det persiske Imperium, over den nybyggede østlige port til Tempelbjerget.3 Graveringen mindede miraklet om Purim4 og mindede det jødiske folk, hvorfra de kom og for at forblive loyale over for deres persiske velgører.5 Fordi Persien var øst for Det Hellige Land, blev Eastern Temple Gateway blev valgt som stedet for denne mindesgravering

Talmud fortæller os også, at nær Eastern Gateway var et rum, hvor den nationale længdestandard, alen, var indgraveret på væggen.

En middelalderlig jødisk tradition forudsiger, at profeten Elias vil lede Mashiach ind på tempelområdet gennem denne Shushan Gateway. Elijah er en Kohain og a Kohain må ikke komme ind på en kirkegård. For mange århundreder siden anbragte nogle planlagte muslimer en arabisk kirkegård langs den østlige mur for at forfalde Elias plan (plade #1). I Talmud8 er der imidlertid en diskussion om, hvorvidt en Kohain kan komme ind på en ikke-jødisk kirkegård. Vismændene søgte udtalelse fra profeten Elias selv, og han besluttede, at et medlem af præsteklanen faktisk kunne komme ind på en ikke-jødisk kirkegård. Den muslimske designer på kirkegården var naturligvis ikke en talmudisk lærd.

(Plade #1) Arabisk kirkegård bygget langs den østlige tempelmur.

Denne muslimske kirkegård er bygget op langs den østlige mur og tilslører fuldstændigt resterne af Shushan Gateway for synet. For flere hundrede år siden forårsagede en pest i Jerusalem mange araberes død. Ofrene for pesten blev begravet i en massegrav foran Shushan -porten, og et monument over tragedien blev placeret i nærheden. I løbet af tiden dekomponerede og komprimerede ligene, hvilket skabte en hule på kirkegården.

(Plade #2) Udsigt inde i hulen. Stenene, der buede opad, er bygget på den originale Shushan Gateway.

Eksistensen af ​​denne hule blev ikke offentliggjort, fordi muslimerne ikke ønskede nysgerrighedssøgende, der trampede gennem deres kirkegård. De tillader ikke ikke-muslimer at komme ind på disse hellige grunde. Da jeg ikke havde til hensigt at være respektløs, vidste jeg, at jeg for at fuldføre min udforskning af Jerusalems mure skulle inspicere hulen på min næste tur til Jerusalem.

Da jeg kom til Østmurens kirkegård, fandt jeg ud af, at der var stationeret en arabisk vicevært for at sikre, at der ikke ville blive gjort ulovlig adgang. Jeg ventede og så på lang afstand. Omkring middag besluttede viceværten at holde en frokostpause. Da han gik til en frokost i den arabiske landsby nedenfor, sneg jeg mig ind på kirkegården til stedet, hvor toppen af ​​hulen lå. Det var dækket med en rusten metalplade. Efter at have trukket metalbeklædningen til side, lænede jeg mig inde i hulen. Det var kulsort. Jeg begyndte at tage billeder tilfældigt, usikker på hvad jeg fotograferede. Mit arbejde blev afsluttet lige i tide viceværten vendte tilbage med et metalrør i hånden. Jeg skyndte mig tilbage.

(Plade #3) The Mercy Gate, Shaar Harachamim.

Så snart jeg kom tilbage til “States, 𔄫 fik jeg udviklet billederne. Jeg kunne se, at gulvet i hulen var fyldt med rester af lig, kranier og skeletrester. Endnu vigtigere var på bagsiden af ​​hulen en udsat nedre del af den østlige mur. På den eksponerede del af den østlige mur var det øvre segment af en bue & #8212 resterne af Shushan Gateway (plade #2). Fra det lille segment af en bue kunne jeg fastslå, at den oprindelige Shushan Gateway var en dobbelt gateway, der ligner den dobbelte Chuldah -udgang på den sydlige mur.10 Med den sparsomme smule information kunne jeg rekonstruere den gamle Shushan Gateway. (Se tegning.)

Dannelsen af ​​hulen gav også mulighed for at søge efter rummet nær Shushan -porten, der hentydes til i Talmud, som indeholdt den nationale alenstandard. En sådan opdagelse ville en gang for alle løse den store halakiske debat om den nøjagtige længde af alen. 11 Jeg begyndte at planlægge min næste ulovlige ekspedition til stedet.

Da jeg ankom der året efter, blev mine store forventninger hurtigt sprunget. Araberne havde fyldt hulen med alskens affald og affald. Jeg var ikke parat til at grave op og køre flere tons affald væk.

Da kong Salomo byggede det første tempel, konstruerede han en særlig to-kammers bygning i tempelforbindelsen. Det ene kammer var til brudgomme og det andet var til mennesker, der observerede den traditionelle sorgperiode. De, der deltog i templetjenesten, gik til disse lokaler for at tilbyde de passende ord, enten for at lykønske eller kondolere.12 Disse værelser blev bygget over den østlige port og blev rekonstrueret i det andet tempel.

I dag er den eneste synlige struktur, der er bygget på den østlige mur, en stor bygning med to forseglede buede vinduer. Kristne kalder det Golden Gate, men jøderne og muslimerne omtaler det som Shaar Harachamim, Mercy Gate (plade #3). Det er dekoreret med udsmykkede byzantinske stenværker svarende til murværket over Chuldah -udgangen på den sydlige mur. 14 I middelalderen, da jøderne blev nægtet adgang til Vestmuren, ville de samles foran Mercy Gate og bede for Gud & #8217s medfølelse med at forløse sin hellige nation. Nogle siger, at Mercy Gate er en rekonstruktion af kong Salomons to-kammers værelse.15

(Plade #4) Den lodrette linje i midten af ​​billedet er sømmen, der markerer det punkt, hvorfra Herodes forlængede den østlige mur. Stenene nederst til venstre på sømmen er typiske herodiske ashlere. Stenene til højre for sømmen går forud for Herodes og er de ældste tempelsten, der kan ses.

Et par år før den almindelige æra genopbyggede den jødiske tyran, Herodes den Store, det andet tempel fuldstændigt og udvidede Temple Mount Compound. 16 Herodes samlede 10.000 jødiske håndværkere, 120.000 ikke-jødiske træskærere og stenbrudmænd, 50.000 Jerusalems formænd og 1.500 uniformeret Kohanim og Leviim at føre tilsyn med arbejdet oven på Tempelbjerget. 17

(Plade #5) Stenene, der stak ud fra den østlige mur, var begyndelsen på en buegang, der understøttede en trappe, der førte til templets kælder.

Ved afslutningen af ​​Herodes ’s monumentale genopbygningsprojekt var Temple Compound det dobbelte af dets oprindelige areal.18 Han flyttede den nordlige, vestlige og sydlige mur længere udad. Herodes kunne ikke flytte den østlige mur længere ud, fordi den østlige mur var placeret nær toppen af ​​Moriah -bjerget, og den østlige skråning var et skarpt fald på 300 fod nedad i Kidron -dalen. Herodes måtte imidlertid forlænge den nordlige og sydlige ende af den østlige mur, så den ville møde de nyligt flyttede nordlige og sydlige tempelmure.

Den oprindelige østmur var omkring 750-1.000 fod lang. Efter Herodes tilføjelser til væggen var den 1.530 fod lang. Disse tilføjelser producerede to interessante arkitektoniske træk. Herodes instruerede sine bygherrer til at bruge et unikt design til sine tempelsten. Centren af ​​stenene skulle være glat polerede flade overflader, der rager en brøkdel af en tomme fra forsænkede kanter, der indrammer kanterne. De originale tempelsten havde også de forsænkede grænser, men havde ru, ufærdige centre, der ragede flere centimeter ud. Meget af den østlige mur viser disse primitive ru tempelstene. Men den nordlige og sydlige ende af væggen har de glat polerede herodianske sten.

(Plader #6a, 6b) To typer bygningssten. Stenen med det vævede mønster blev brugt til at bygge uden for azarahaven. Fragmentet af splintet sten med det glatte center blev brugt indeni.

Et andet arkitektonisk træk, der blev produceret, da Herodes tilføjede længden af ​​den østlige mur, er en søm. Når en forlængelse er bygget på en væg, forbliver en lodret linje, kaldet en søm, hvor den gamle væg sluttede og den nye konstruktion begyndte. I dag kan vi se den søm 105 fod fra den sydlige ende af den østlige mur. Vi kan se de herodianske sten med deres talende glatte centre til venstre for sømmen og de præ-herodianske sten med deres ru fremspringende centre til højre for sømmen (plade #4).

Nær den sydlige ende af den østlige mur er flere andre spændende træk. Den mest mærkbare er en række sten, der rager ud fra væggen (plade #5). Dette var begyndelsen på en tempelbue. Buen understøttede trin, der førte ind i kælderen i det andet tempel, populært kaldet kong Salomons stalde. Denne buegang på den østlige mur var direkte modsat buen på den vestlige mur kaldet Robinson ’s Arch.20 Hvis man ser nøje over buens sten, kan man se konturerne af to forseglede Temple-gateways. Igen, med en omhyggelig undersøgelse, kan man skitsere konturerne af tre tempelvinduer, cirka 40 fod til venstre for de to forseglede gateways. Det midterste vindue er blevet rekonstrueret.

En anden bemærkelsesværdig egenskab findes omkring 50 fod fra den sydlige ende af den østlige mur. De herodiske sten, der omfatter den øverste halvdel af væggen, rager lidt ud fra væggen. Jo længere op ad væggen man ser, jo længere rager stenene udad. Denne projektion dannede grundlaget for et tempelvagttårn. Efter al sandsynlighed var sådanne tårne ​​placeret i alle fire hjørner af Tempelbjerget.

(Plade #8) To marmorgulvsten fra Beit Hamikdash.

I slutningen af ​​1800 -tallet sank den engelske arkæolog Charles Warren en mineskakt nær det sydøstlige hjørne af Tempelbjerget. Hans mål var at bestemme, hvor langt ned af væggen, før den ramte grundfjeldet. Til hans forbløffelse gik skaftet ned 80 fod, før han nåede fast sten og bunden af ​​væggen. Den samlede højde af væggen på det tidspunkt var tæt på 160 fod, næsten 16 etager høj.

Warren gjorde også den fantastiske opdagelse, at grundstenene indeholdt fønikisk skrift. Nogle bogstaver blev hugget ind i stenen andre var malet i rødt blæk. Disse breve var mærker, der blev lavet ved stenbruddet for senere at identificere stenene for at sætte dem i deres korrekte positioner til fundamentet for den store mur.

(Plade #9) Korinthisk hovedstad oven på Mercy Gate.

Søjlerne på toppen af ​​Tempelbjerget bestod af sektioner, kaldet trommer, der passede den ene oven på den anden (plade #13). Trommerne skulle arrangeres i en bestemt rækkefølge. For at sikre det korrekte arrangement blev tromlernes bund markeret ved stenbruddet med bogstaver. Alt arbejde udført på toppen af ​​Tempelbjerget blev udført af Kohanim der derfor ikke kendte til fønikisk bogstav, blev mærkerne på tromlernes bund lavet på hebraisk. Da mærkerne på disse grundsten var fønikiske, blev disse sten sandsynligvis sat på plads af ikke-jøder, der var mere fortrolige med det fremmede skrift.

(Plade #10) Inde i Mercy Gate. Søjlen bagpå stammer sandsynligvis tilbage til den anden Beit Hamikdash. Søjlen i forgrunden stammer fra den byzantinske æra fra det fjerde århundrede.

Warren ’s 80 fods dybe skaft forblev udsat for omkring 100 år. For et par år siden betragtede de kommunale embedsmænd den åbne grav som en sikkerhedsrisiko og fik den udfyldt. En bulldozer gravede jorden op fra det omkringliggende område og dumpede den i skaftet.

I ethvert arkæologisk sted, jo længere ned man graver, jo ældre er de relikvier, der afsløres. Men her blev rækkefølgen vendt. Bulldozer kartede de øverste lag jord og deponerede det i bunden af ​​gruben. Det vendte derefter tilbage for at grave det næste lag op og lægge det i gruben. Da opgaven var afsluttet, indeholdt bundlaget af det udfyldte Warren ’s Shaft resterne af keramik fra det 20. århundrede, koksflasker og kasserede aviser, som jeg formoder vil helt sikkert pusle arkæologer fra kommende generationer. Forestil dig at finde en kopi af Ma ’ariv i spisestuen i et byzantinsk hus fra det fjerde århundrede! Men endnu vigtigere, det øverste lag fyld i Warren ’s skaft indeholdt rester af meget gamle relikvier, en sand skattekiste, som jeg lige måtte undersøge.

Ved at undersøge fyldet fandt jeg to typer af herodiske byggesten. Begge typer havde de udskårne margener, der var typiske for de herodiske tempelsten.22 Men den ene stentype havde et perfekt glat center, den anden type havde et vævlignende design hugget på stenen. Forskellen kan forklares iht halachah. Afgørelsen er, at byggesten, der blev brugt i den inderste gårdhave (azarah) skulle være helt glat.23 Ingen hakker eller revner skulle påvises ved at køre miniaturen hen over overfladen. Sten, der blev brugt i konstruktionen til de ydre gårde, havde ikke denne halakiske begrænsning (plader #6a, 6b).

Talmud fortæller os, at gulvet var fremstillet af marmorfliser. 24 Der var tre farver af fliser: hvid, brun og blålig-lilla. I fyldet fandt jeg to fragmenter af marmorfliser. Det ene fragment var brunt, det andet fragment var blålig-lilla (plade #8). Jeg fandt også en stenolie lampe (plade #7). De fleste olielamper fundet i Det Hellige Land var lavet af ler. Men bagt leredskaber er modtagelige for at blive besmittet (tumah), mens stenfartøjer ikke kan. Det er derfor forståeligt, at en olielampe, der findes i nærheden af ​​templet, ville være udformet af sten.

(Plade #11) Bagsiden af ​​Mercy Gate. En korintisk søjle kan skelnes mellem de to buer på dette 110 år gamle fotografi.

Og nu til den gåde, der hentydes til i titlen på denne artikel. Citeret tidligere var mishnah der sagde, at over Shushan Gateway var en skildring af den persiske hovedstad, Shushan. Jeg har ofte undret mig over, hvordan tempelbyggerne skildrede Shushan. Havde byen en genkendelig skyline, som New York, Chicago eller St. Louis? Havde Shushan en bemærkelsesværdig struktur, som Empire State -bygningen eller Akropolis, der symboliserede hovedstaden i det persiske imperium? Sikkert ikke. Hvis ja, hvordan blev Shushan afbildet over Eastern Gateway?

Bygget på toppen af ​​facaden af ​​Mercy Gate er en lidt bemærket hovedstad i en korintisk søjle (plade #9). I klassisk græsk og romersk arkitektur er der tre forskellige stilarter: dorisk, ionisk og korintisk. En hovedstad i en søjle er den dekorative sten oven på en søjle. Korintiske hovedstæder er de mest udsmykkede af de tre stilarter og består normalt af tre niveauer af acanthusblade. For et eksempel på typiske korintiske søjler og hovedstæder ser vi på indersiden af ​​Mercy Gate (plade #10). Hovedstæderne såvel som selve søjlerne er muligvis rester af det andet tempel.

Tempelbjerget og den østlige mur set fra Har Hatzofim.

Den jødiske historiker fra den sene anden tempelperiode, Josephus Flavius, fortæller os, at den arkitektoniske stil i det herodiske andet tempel var korintisk.25 Klassisk rabbinsk litteratur oversætter ordet “Corinthian ” til hebraisk som shushan, hvilket betyder lilje-lignende eller blomster .26 Kong Salomo brugte også blomsterhovedstæder til sine kolonner i det første tempel, og det hebraiske udtryk, der blev brugt i Tanach til at beskrive dem, er også ordet shushan. 27 Korinthiske eller Shushan -hovedstæder var også almindelige i gamle templer og paladser.28

(Plade #13) Tromler af søjler ligger spredt rundt foran den sydlige mur.

På mange sprog bruges det samme ord til at betegne kapital af en kolonne og kapital by i et land. Måske var der over den gamle Eastern Gateway en stor korintisk/shushan (dvs. blomster) hovedstad, der symboliserer Shushan, hovedstaden. Med andre ord var der ingen udskæring eller gravering, der skildrede bygningerne i Shushan, et arkitektonisk ordspil repræsenterede den persiske hovedstad.

En yderligere forbindelse mellem korintisk arkitektur og Shushan Gateway kan laves af det udsmykkede designarbejde, der forbliver på strukturen. En mere komplet version er stadig tilbage på bygningens bagdør (plade #11). Dette design er bestemt korintisk i stilen. Nogle arkæologer, såsom W. Harold Mare, mener, at dette designværk er fra den anden tempelæra.

Den lille korintiske hovedstad, der hviler oven på Mercy Gate i dag, tænkeligt et levn fra en anden tempelkolonne, kan være et arkitektonisk minde om gamle tider, da en gigantisk Shushan -hovedstad hvilede der.

I gamle tider mindede den gamle marmorhovedstad os om det sted, hvorfra vi kom. I dag tjener den til at minde os om den dag, hvor profeten Elias vil forkynde den messianske æra og om det sted, vi skal vende tilbage til. Må det ske hurtigt i vore dage.

Luftfoto af Tempelbjerget og den østlige mur.

Rabbi Reznick er en magg shiur i Beit Midrash af Shaarei Torah fra Rockland. Han er forfatter til Det hellige tempel genbesøgte, Ve Jerusalem, En tid til at græde og Mysteriet om Bar Kokhba.

Denne artikel blev først vist i sommeren 1996 -udgaven af Jødisk handling.

1. Rashi Ezra 1:1, Toldot Am Olam bind I, s. 329.

3. Tiferet Yisrael Kelim 17, note 67.

4. Sefer HaYuchsin 61a.

6. Ezrat Kohanim bind. Jeg, s. 105, stk. 10.

7. Se Menochot ibid. og Kelim 17: 9 og kommentarer ad loc.

8. Baba Metzia 114a & amp b.

9. “States ” er et begreb, der bruges af sofistikerede rejsende, der har været i udlandet mindst en gang. Det bruges normalt af indfødte i Brooklyn, men det kan høres i de fleste jødiske dele af staten New York.

10. Se jødisk Handling Sommer 5755/1995, “The Forgotten Wall, ” for en detaljeret beskrivelse af denne gateway og hele den sydlige mur.

11. Se jødisk Handling Vinter 1991/1992 til en diskussion baseret på arkæologiske beviser om længden af ​​en alen i min artikel om Bar Kokhba -templet.

13. Kaftor Voferach, kap. 6.

14. Se jødisk Handling Sommer 5755/1995, “Den glemte væg. ”

17. Yossiphon kap. 55.

18. Josephus, Jødernes krige Bog I, kapitel 21 og amp Bog V, kapitel 5.

19. Se jødisk Handling Sommer 5755/1995 for en beskrivelse og fotografier af “ -stalden. ”

20. Se jødisk Handling Vinter 5753/1992-3, “A Private Tour of the Western Wall, ” for a description of Robinson ’s Arch.

21. Se Det hellige tempel genbesøgte, udgivet af Jason Aronson Inc., s. 62 for et billede og en diskussion af eventuelt dating med bogstaverne.

22. Se jødisk Handling Vinter 5753/1992-3.

23. Rambam Beit Habechirah 1:15.

24. Baba Batra 4a og Rashi ad loc.

25. Jødernes krige Bog V, kap. 5.

26. Såsom f.eks Ezrat Kohanim.

28. Under den sydlige del af Har Habayit er en 300 fod lang tunnel med kupler understøttet ved kolonner. Se note #13. En af kolonnerne har en meget primitiv korinthisk/shushansk hovedstad, muligvis en rest af kong Salomons første tempel.


Harmandir Sahibs historie

Oprindelsen og udviklingen af ​​det sted, hvor Det Gyldne Tempel nu står, er dækket af mystik. Nogle kilder sporer dens oprindelse fra den forhistoriske æra som et indisk sted for tilbedelse. Placeringen af ​​Det Gyldne Tempel er et lavtliggende område med en stor dam omgivet af tæt jungle. Dette stykke jord blev makuleret af landsbyerne Sultanwind Tung, Gilwali og Gumtala etc. Mere over dens geografiske beliggenhed var fantastisk. Det lå ved siden af ​​byen Lahore, den daværende hovedstad i Punjab og motorvejen, der forbinder Indien og centralasiatiske lande, løb også gennem dette stykke jord.

Vælg Kronologi af Harmandir Sahib og Amritsar

1573 AD Byggeriet af den hellige vandtank startede under opsyn af Guru RamDas Ji.

1577 AD Guru Ram Das Ji lagde grunden til Amritsar (tidligere kendt som Ram Das Pur)

1588 AD Grundlaget for Harimandir blev lagt af en muslimsk helgen Mian Mir.

1604 AD Den centrale helligdom blev afsluttet.

1606 AD Sikh -guruen Hargobind ji vedtog to sværd, et til religiøse anliggender og et andet til verdslige anliggender. Guru Hargobind sahib ji lagde også grundlaget for Akal Takht.

1621 AD Guru Teg Bahadur ji blev født i Amritsar.

1628 AD Den første væbnede konflikt i Sikh-Mughal nogensinde, og sikherne vandt sejrrigt under kommando af Guru Hargobind sahib ji.

1634 e.Kr. Guru Hargobind sahib ji rejste til Kiratpur med sine hengivne for at afværge et eventuelt angreb på besøgende sikh -hengivne.

1665 e.Kr. Guru Teg Bhadur besøgte det gyldne tempel efter at være blevet den niende sikh -guru, men han blev nægtet adgang fra dets præster.

1721 e.Kr. Bhai Mani Singh udnævnte til ypperstepræsten og administratoren af ​​Det Gyldne Tempel. Efter et århundredes lang periode var kontrollen over Det Gyldne Tempel ’s igen under sikherne.

1725 e.Kr. Strid mellem de to sikhsekter om Golden Temple ’s kontrol. Bhai Mani singh løste det på en fair måde.

1738 e.Kr. Ypperstepræsten Bhai Mani Singh hackede i stykker for ikke at betale krævede indtægter til Mughal -myndighederne

1739 AD Mughalerne forhandlede fred og ydede uafhængigt område [jagir] til sikherne.

1739 AD Den persiske konge Nadis Shah knyttet det gyldne tempel

1740 AD Sikherne hævnede handling for helligelse af en Mughal -administrator ved navn Massa Ranghard. To sikh -krigere Sukha singh og Mehtab singh huggede hovedet i helligdommen, hvor han så dans under alkoholpåvirkning med sine venner og soldater.

1745 AD En bølge af undertrykkelse begyndte at bremse sikherne.

1757 AD Den afghanske konge Ahmed Shah Abdali angreb det gyldne tempel og Baba Deep Singh martyr.

1762 AD Efter den større holocaust den 5. februar 1762 raserede den afghanske konge Abdali det gyldne tempel til jorden og fyldte dets hellige tank med affald, skrald og dyrekroppe.

1764 AD Endnu en gang kom Abdali til Amritsar og ødelagde hvad han nogensinde stødte på. Baba Gubaksh Singh og hans tredive kammerater blev hensynsløst myrdet nær Akal Takhat.

1767 AD Udasi -hellige Nirvan Pritam Das og Mahant Santokh Das bragte 35 miles lange vandkanal for at fylde den hellige vandtank med vandet i floden Ravi.

1773 AD Sikh Misal -høvdinge rejste bygningen af ​​Gurdwara baba Atal nær Det Gyldne Tempel.

1776 AD Rekonstruktion af den beskadigede hellige vandtank, indgangsport og bro.

1802 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh besatte Amritsars område.

1808 AD Amritsars berømte Gobindghar -fort blev hævet for at flytte Lahores skat til#Amritsar.

1813 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh opnåede berømt diamant & quotKo-he-noor & quot; nu besat i den engelske krone og en stor hær marcherede forbi i Amritsars gader.

1822 AD Amritsars befæstningsvæg med tolv porte afsluttet.

1831 AD Guldverdenen i det gyldne tempel nåede sine sidste faser.

1839 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh kom til Golden Temple i marts 1839, det beviste hans sidste besøg.

1849 AD Sikherne mistede deres herredømme over det forenede område Punjab.

1857 AD Amritsar observerede en lille effekt af mytteriet mod briterne.

1871 AD Kuka [Namdhari] bevægelse rystede Amritsar, flere muslimske slagtere blev myrdet. Britiske administratorer hængte flere Kuka -disciple ihjel i Amritsar nær Maharaja Ranjit Singhs sommerpalads.

1873 AD Singh Sabha -bevægelsen fik rødder.

1881 AD Den britiske regering introducerede deres ledelsesagenter eller ledere [Sarbarah] til at udøve deres fulde kontrol over Det Gyldne Tempel.

1893 AD Khalsa College, Amritsar åbnede.

1902 AD Pro britisk chef Khala Diwan dannet.

1919 AD Jallian Wala Bagh -massakren tog livet af flere tusinde uskyldige sikher og andre på Baisakhi -dagen i Amritsar.

1921 AD Sikherne overtog kontrollen over flere sikh -helligdomme, herunder Det Gyldne Tempel. SGPC som moderkrop opstod, der tog sin endelige form efter nogle år.

1923 AD Den første Ka Sewa eller rensning af den hellige vandtank fandt sted.

1925 AD Sikh Gurdwara -loven blev vedtaget.

1947 AD Amritsar blev en grænseby efter inddeling af Indien ’s.

1949 AD Sikh Reference bibliotek dannet.

1958 AD Central Sikh -museum dannet.

1973 AD Den anden Kar Sewa i den hellige vandtank.

1977 AD Byen Amritsar fejrede sin 400 -års fødselsdag.

1978 AD Sikh – Nirankari -konflikt tog livet af tretten uskyldige sikh -demonstranter, og det ændrede Punjab for altid.

1984 AD Den indiske hær invaderede det gyldne tempel under operation "Blue Star", der kostede flere uskyldige tusinder liv og resulterede i ødelæggelsen af ​​Golden Temple -komplekset.

1988 AD En anden para -militær aktion fandt sted i år med det formål at skylle sikh -militante ud af Golden Temple -komplekset.

1988 AD Flere tusinde butikker og huse generelt af sikherne blev fjernet for at lave en korridor omkring Det Gyldne Tempel. Det tilføjede længe ventet skønhed og plads til Det Gyldne Tempel.

1997 AD Den engelske dronning Elizabeth II og hendes mand besøgte Det Gyldne Tempel.

2004 AD Det gyldne tempel observerede den første Kar Sewa i det 21. århundrede med det formål at installere vandrensningsanlæg. I år blev der også observeret den største nogensinde registrerede styrke for hengivne, der besøgte Det Gyldne Tempel på én gang, tærsklen til fejringen af ​​Sikh -skriften i Quadricentennial i september 2004.


46 tanker om & ldquoThe Golden Gate of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem & rdquo

/>Leen Ritmeyer siger:

Det nytter ikke kun at argumentere ud fra tekst uden at tage de arkæologiske rester i betragtning. Du læser kun tekster og er uvidende om arkæologien i Jerusalem.

Der er ingen “[nogle]” i 6: 149 (Loeb -oversættelse). Antonia's klippekarpe var og er stadig meget høj og gav et godt synspunkt for Titus, selv efter at hans soldater havde ødelagt det ned til dets (stenede) fundament. Selv efter dens ødelæggelse beholdt det navnet Antonia.
Krig 6.166 taler om de portikoer, der blev forbundet med de stenede fundamenter i Antonia -fæstningen. Nogle af stikkontakterne til tagbjælkerne i disse portier har overlevet indtil i dag - se mit indlæg om Antonia.
Krig 7.1 taler om Jerusalems huse, der stod på den vestlige bakke, for det var der, tårnene i Phasael, Hippicus (stadig står i dag) og Mariamne stod. De beskyttede Herodes ’palads, der efter Herodes’ død blev overtaget af de romerske prokonsuler. Det var her Pilatus opholdt sig, da han kom til Jerusalem. Det var her, Praetorium lå, og ingen andre steder. Rester af dette palads er blevet udgravet i citadellet og dets tilstødende grunde.

Da Jesus talte om "ikke en sten", henviste han til de "bygninger" (flertal), der stod på Tempelbjerget. Der er kun ét Tempelbjerge (ental), så det kunne jesus ikke have henvist til, men han kiggede på de mange bygninger, da han forudsagde deres ødelæggelse. Læs venligst grundigt.
Romernes pløjning refererer til at pløje en fure for at fastsætte grænserne for Aelia Capitolina. Det er standard romersk praksis.
Der stod aldrig en byzantinsk kirke på stedet for Klippekuplen, som er blevet grundigt undersøgt af mange lærde. De kristne bygger den hellige grav, som var deres hovedkirke. Det er nonsens at tyde på, at Praetorium var ved Klippekuplen. Det ville ingen forsker være enig i.

Det er ikke mine personlige meninger, men de af en arkitekt, der i mange år og sammen med mange kolleger har arbejdet med udgravninger på Tempelbjerget, udgravningerne i det jødiske kvarter, Davids by og citadellet.

Medmindre du læser ordentlige bøger om arkæologien i Jerusalem af fagfolk, der har arbejdet i mange år i Jerusalem, vil du aldrig forstå teksten til Josephus, og det er meningsløst for mig at gå i diskussioner med mennesker, der ikke ved noget om Jerusalems fortid .

Hvis du vil være seriøs med at lære Jerusalem bedre at kende, anbefaler jeg at læse følgende bøger:
Dan Bahat: Det illustrerede atlas i Jerusalem.
Ronny Reich: Udgravning af Davids by.
Leen Ritmeyer: The Quest - afsløring af Tempelbjerget i Jerusalem.
Leen og Kathleen Ritmeyer: Jerusalem - Tempelbjerget.
Nahman Avigad: Opdagelse af Jerusalem.
Hillel Geva (red.): Ancient Jerusalem Revealed, 1998-2018.
Hillel Geva og Ephraim Stern (red.): The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land.

Disse er standardværker, der bruges i bachelorstudier på mange universiteter, der underviser i arkæologi i Jerusalem. Når du først har fået fat i Jerusalems sande arkæologi ved at læse disse bøger, kan vi diskutere yderligere, men ikke når du kun stoler på meget gamle rapporter og hørespørgsmål fra ukvalificerede mennesker.

“de glemte Zion ”
.
Zion er Mount Moriah, Tempelbjerget, selvom det også gjaldt David ’s City, men alligevel ikke den nuværende bakke betegnet “Mt. Zion ”.


Ophøjelse: En familiesag

Præsident Nelson: Ophøjelse er en familie affære. Kun gennem de frelsende ordinancer i Jesu Kristi evangelium kan familier ophøjes. Den ultimative ende, som vi stræber efter, er, at vi bliver lykkelige som familie - udstyret, beseglet og forberedt på evigt liv i Guds nærhed.

Søster Nelson: Hver kirkeklasse, vi deltager i, hver gang vi tjener, hver pagt vi indgår med Gud, hver præstedømmeforordning vi modtager, alt hvad vi gør i Kirken fører os til det hellige tempel, Herrens hus. Der er så meget magt til rådighed for et par og for deres børn gennem forseglingsforordningen, når de holder deres pagter.

Præsident Nelson: Hver dag vælger vi, hvor vi vil leve evigt, af hvordan vi tænker, føler, taler og handler. Vores himmelske Fader har erklæret, at hans værk og hans herlighed skal bringe hans børns udødelighed og evige liv til livs (se Moses 1:39). Men han har lyst os til at vælge at vende tilbage til ham. Han vil ikke tvinge os på nogen måde. Den præcision, hvormed vi holder vores pagter, viser ham, hvor meget vi ønsker at vende tilbage for at leve med ham. Hver dag bringer os tættere på eller længere fra vores herlige mulighed for evigt liv. Vi har hver især brug for at holde vores pagter, omvende os dagligt og søge at blive mere som vores Frelser. Da og kun da kan familier være sammen for evigt.

Søster Nelson: Det er mit vidnesbyrd om, hvor fantastisk dit liv er lige nu, eller hvor nedslående og hjerteskærende det måtte være, vil dit engagement i tempel- og familiehistorisk arbejde gøre det bedre. Hvad har du brug for i dit liv lige nu? Mere kærlighed? Mere glæde? Mere selvbeherskelse? Mere fred? Flere meningsfulde øjeblikke? Mere en fornemmelse af, at du gør en forskel? Mere sjov? Flere svar på dine sjælsøgende spørgsmål? Flere hjerte-til-hjerte-forbindelser med andre? Mere forståelse for, hvad du læser i skrifterne? Mere evne til at elske og tilgive? Mere evne til at bede med kraft? Mere inspiration og kreative ideer til dit arbejde og andre projekter? Mere tid til det, der virkelig betyder noget?

Jeg beder dig om at ofre tid til Herren ved at øge den tid, du bruger på at udføre tempel- og slægtshistorisk arbejde, og derefter se, hvad der sker. Det er mit vidnesbyrd, at når vi viser Herren, at vi er seriøse med at hjælpe vores forfædre, vil himlen åbne, og vi vil modtage alt, hvad vi har brug for.

Præsident Nelson: Vi kan hele dagen blive inspireret til tempel- og familiehistoriske oplevelser, som andre har haft. Men vi skal gøre noget for faktisk at opleve glæden selv. Jeg vil gerne udvide en udfordring til hver enkelt af os, så den vidunderlige følelse af dette arbejde kan fortsætte og endda øges. Jeg inviterer dig til i bøn at overveje, hvilken slags offer - helst et tidsoffer - du kan bringe for at udføre mere tempel- og familiehistorisk arbejde i år.

Vi er engageret i den almægtige Guds arbejde. Han lever. Jesus er Kristus. Dette er hans kirke. Vi er hans pagtsbørn. Han kan regne med os.


Mission statement

Lejlighed. Engagement. Opdagelse.

Temple University educates a vibrant student body and creates new knowledge through innovative teaching, research and other creative endeavors. Our urban setting provides transformative opportunities for engaged scholarship, experiential learning, and discovery of self, others and the world. We open our doors to a diverse community of learners and scholars who strive to make the possible real.

We are committed to the ideals upon which Temple was founded:

  • providing access to an excellent, affordable higher education that prepares students for careers, further learning and active citizenship.
  • creating a collaborative community of outstanding faculty and staff who foster inclusion and encourage the aspirations of Temple students.
  • promoting service and engagement throughout Philadelphia, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the nation and the world.

Meenakshi Temple

Meenakshi Amman Temple, also known as Minakshi-Sundareshwara Temple, is one of the oldest and most important temples in India. Located in the city of Madurai, the temple has a great mythological and historical significance. It is believed that Lord Shiva assumed the form of Sundareswarar (the handsome one) and married Parvati (Meenakshi) at the site where the temple is currently located. Renowned for its astonishing architecture, Meenakshi Temple was nominated as one of the wonders of the world, but couldn’t make it into the list of ‘Seven Wonders of the World’. However, the temple is definitely one of the ‘Wonders of India’. It is also one of the main attractions of South India with thousands of devotees thronging it every day. During the ‘Tirukalyanam Festival,’ which takes place over a period of 10 days, the temple attracts more than a million devotees. Despite many people visiting it every day, the temple is well-maintained and was named the ‘Best Swachh Iconic Place’ (cleanest iconic place) in India.

According to a legend, Meenakshi emerged out of a ‘Yajna’ (sacred fire) as a three-year-old girl. The ‘Yajna’ was performed by a king named Malayadwaja Pandya along with his wife Kanchanamalai. Since the royal couple had no child, the King offered his prayers to Lord Shiva, requesting him to grant them a son. But to their dismay, a triple-breasted girl emerged from the sacred fire. When Malayadwaja and his wife expressed their concern over the girl’s abnormal appearance, a divine voice ordered them not to fret over the girl’s physical appearance. They were also informed that the girl’s third breast will disappear as soon as she meets her future husband. The relieved King named her Meenakshi and in due course crowned her as his successor.

Meenakshi ruled over the ancient city of Madurai and also went on to capture the neighboring kingdoms. Legend has it that she even captured Indralok, the abode of Lord Indra, and was on her way to capture Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva, as well. When Shiva appeared before her, Meenakshi’s third breast disappeared and she knew that she had met her better half. Shiva and Meenakshi returned to Madurai where their wedding took place. It is said that the wedding was attended by all the gods and goddesses. Since Parvati herself had assumed the form of Meenakshi, Lord Vishnu, Parvati’s brother, handed her over to Lord Shiva. Even today, the wedding ceremony is celebrated every year as ‘Chithirai Thiruvizha’ which is also known as ‘Tirukalyanam’ (the grand wedding).

The history of Meenakshi Temple dates back to the 1st century C.E with scholars claiming it to be as old as the city itself. It is said that Kulashekarar Pandyan, a king who ruled over the Pandyan dynasty, built the temple as per the instructions given in his dream by Lord Shiva. A few religious texts that belong to the 1st to 4th century C.E talk about the temple and describe it as the central structure of the city. Texts dating back to the early 6th century, describe the temple as a place where scholars met to discuss important topics. The temple as it stands today, however, was rebuilt throughout the 16th century as it was destroyed by the Muslim invaders.

During the 14th century C.E, Malik Kafur, a commander of Delhi Sultanate, led his army into most parts of southern India and looted many temples including the famed Meenakshi Temple. Valuables, such as gold, silver and precious gems were taken to Delhi. Since temples in those days had abundance of valuables, most of the temples were destroyed and were left in ruins. When the Vijayanagar Empire took over Madurai after defeating the Muslim Sultanate, the temple was rebuilt and reopened. The temple was further expanded during the late 16th century and early 17th century by Vishwanatha Nayakar, a king of the Nayaka dynasty. According to researchers, while rebuilding the temple, the rulers of Nayaka dynasty followed the architectural style of ‘Silpa Shastras.’ ‘Silpa Shastras’ are a set of architectural laws found in the ancient texts.

The temple was once again expanded by Thirumalai Nayak who ruled over Madurai from 1623 to 1655. During his reign, many ‘Mandapams’ (pillared halls) were built. The temple was then expanded by many later Nayaka rulers before the advent of the British East India Company. The temple was once again degraded and parts of it were destroyed during the British Rule. In 1959, the restoration work was started by Tamil Hindus by collecting donations and by collaborating with historians and engineers. The temple was completely restored in 1995.

Temple Structure

The temple occupies a huge area in the heart of Madurai as it spreads over 14 acres. The temple is enclosed with huge walls, which were built in response to the invasions. The entire structure, when viewed from above, represents a mandala. A mandala is a structure built according to the laws of symmetry and loci. There are various shrines built within the temple complex. Apart from the two main shrines, which are dedicated to Sundareswarar and Meenakshi, the temple has shrines dedicated to various other deities like Ganesha and Murugan. The temple also houses goddesses Lakshmi, Rukmini, and Saraswati.

The temple also has a consecrated pond named ‘Porthamarai Kulam.’ The term ‘Potramarai Kulam’ is a literal translation of ‘pond with a golden lotus.’ The structure of a golden lotus is placed at the center of the pond. It is said that Lord Shiva blessed this pond and declared that no marine life would grow in it. In the Tamil folklore, the pond is believed to be an evaluator for reviewing the worth of any new literature.

The temple has four main towering gateways (gopurams) that look identical to each other. Apart from the four ‘gopurams,’ the temple also houses many other ‘gopurams’ that serve as gateways to a number of shrines. The temple has a total of 14 towering gateways. Each one of them is a multi-storey structure and displays thousands of mythological stories and several other sculptures. The major ‘gopurams’ of the temple are listed below:

  • Kadaka Gopuram – This towering gateway leads to the main shrine that houses Goddess Meenakshi. The gateway was rebuilt by Tumpichi Nayakkar during the mid-16th century. The ‘gopuram’ has five storeys.
  • Sundareswarar Shrine Gopuram – This is the oldest ‘gopuram’ of the temple and was built by Kulasekara Pandya. The ‘gopuram’ serves as a gateway to the Sundareswarar (Lord Shiva) shrine.
  • Chitra Gopuram – Built by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II, the gopuram depicts the religious and secular essence of Hinduism.
  • Nadukkattu Gopuram – Also called as the ‘Idaikattu Gopuram,’ this gateway leads to the Ganesha shrine. The gateway is placed right in between the two main shrines.
  • Mottai Gopuram – This ‘gopuram’ has fewer stucco images when compared to the other gateways. Interestingly, ‘Mottai gopuram’ had no roof for nearly three centuries.
  • Nayaka Gopuram – This ‘gopuram’ was built by Visvappa Nayakkar around 1530. The ‘gopuram’ is astonishingly similar to another gateway called ‘Palahai Gopuram.’

The temple also has numerous pillared halls called ‘Mandapams.’ These halls were built by various kings and emperors and they serve as resting places for pilgrims and devotees. Some of the most important ‘mandapams’ are given below:

  • Ayirakkal Mandapam – It literally translates to ‘hall with thousand pillars.’ The hall, which was built by Ariyanatha Mudaliar, is a true spectacle as it is supported by 985 pillars. Each and every pillar is sculpted magnificently and has images of Yali, a mythological creature.
  • Kilikoondu Mandapam – This ‘mandapam’ was originally built to house hundreds of parrots. The parrots that were kept there in cages were trained to say ‘Meenakshi’. The hall, which is next to the Meenakshi shrine, has sculptures of characters from Mahabharata.
  • Ashta Shakthi Mandapam – This hall houses the sculptures of eight goddesses. Built by two queens, the hall is placed in between the main ‘gopuram’ and the gateway that leads to the Meenakshi shrine.
  • Nayaka Mandapam – ‘Nayaka Mandapam’ was built by Chinnappa Nayakkar. The hall is supported by 100 pillars and houses a Nataraja statue.

Significance & Worship

Since Meenakshi is the main deity of the temple, the temple signifies the importance of woman in a Tamil Hindu family. The temple also portrays the cordial relationship between Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism. The Sundareswarar shrine is known as one fifth of ‘Pancha Sabhai’ (five courts) where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed the cosmic dance. Worship mainly involves rituals and processions. One of the rituals involves placing an image of Sundareswarar inside a palanquin which is then moved to the shrine of Meenakshi. The palanquin is taken into the shrine every night and is brought back to the shrine of Sundareswarar every morning. The devotees usually worship Meenakshi before offering their prayers to Sundareswarar.

Apart from the main festival, which is basically the wedding ceremony of the deities, a number of other festivals are celebrated in the temple. Some of these include ‘Vasantham festival,’ ‘Unjal festival,’ ‘Mulai-Kottu festival,’ ‘Arudhra Dharsan festival,’ ‘Thai utsavam,’ ‘Kolattam festival,’ etc. Each of these festivals has its own significance and is celebrated during various months throughout the year. The temple also celebrates ‘Navarathri festival.’ During ‘Navarathri’ the temple displays colorful dolls which are collectively called ‘gollu.’ ‘Gollu’ often convey stories from mythological scenes.


Indhold

In the Middle Ages, the authority of the City of London Corporation reached beyond the City's ancient defensive walls in several places, known as the Liberties of London. To regulate trade into the City, barriers were erected on the major entrance routes wherever the true boundary was a substantial distance from the nearest ancient gatehouse in the walls. Temple Bar was the most used of these, since traffic between the City of London (England's prime commercial centre) and the Palace of Westminster (the political centre) passed through it. It was located where Fleet Street now meets The Strand, which is outside London's old boundary wall. [1]

Its name derives from the Temple Church, adjoining to the south, which has given its name to a wider area south of Fleet Street, the Temple, once belonging to the Knights Templar but now home to two of the legal profession's Inns of Court.

The historic ceremony of the monarch halting at Temple Bar and being met by the Lord Mayor has often featured in art and literature. It is commented on in televised coverage of modern-day royal ceremonial processions. The City of London's own website describes the ceremony as:

The Temple Bar ceremony, which is still occasionally re-enacted at a monument to the Bar, involves the monarch stopping to request permission to enter the City and the Lord Mayor presenting the Sword of State as a sign of loyalty. [1]

A bar is first mentioned in 1293 and was probably only a chain or bar between a row of posts. [1] More substantial structures with arches followed. After the Battle of Evesham of 1265, Prince Edward punished the rebellious Londoners, who had befriended Simon de Montfort, by taking away all their street chains and bars, and storing them in the Tower of London. [2] By 1351, a wooden archway had been built housing a small prison above it. The earliest known documentary and historical notice of Temple Bar is in 1327, concerning a hearing before the mayor regarding a right of way in the area. In 1384, Richard II granted a licence for paving the Strand Street from Temple Bar to the Savoy, and collecting tolls to cover the expense.

On 5 November 1422, the corpse of Henry V was borne to Westminster Abbey by the chief citizens and nobles, and every doorway from Southwark to Temple Bar had a torch-bearer. In 1503 the hearse of Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII, halted at Temple Bar, on its way from the Tower to Westminster, and at the Bar the Abbots of Westminster and Bermondsey blessed the corpse, and the Earl of Derby and a large company of nobles joined the funeral procession. Anne Boleyn passed through the Bar on May 31, 1534, the day before her coronation, on her way to the Tower. On that occasion Temple Bar was new painted and repaired, and near it stood singing men and children—the Fleet Street conduit all the time running claret. [2]

In 1554, Thomas Wyatt led an uprising in opposition to Queen Mary I's proposed marriage to Philip II of Spain. When he had fought his way down Piccadilly to The Strand, Temple Bar was thrown open to him, or forced open by him but when he had been repulsed at Ludgate he was hemmed in by cavalry at Temple Bar, where he surrendered. This revolt persuaded the government to go through with the verdict against Lady Jane Grey. [2]

The notable Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar owned his first London shop at Temple Bar, taken over from the ownership of James McEuen in 1728, whom Millar had apprenticed to. [3]

Wren's Temple Bar Gate Edit

Although the Bar Gate escaped damage by the Great Fire of London of 1666, it was rebuilt as part of the general improvement works made throughout the City after that devastating event. Commissioned by King Charles II, and attributed to Sir Christopher Wren, the fine arch of Portland stone was constructed between 1669 and 1672, by Thomas Knight, the City Mason, and Joshua Marshall, Master of the Mason's Company. The statues of Anne of Denmark, James l, Charles I, and Charles II, in niches in the upper floor were carved by John Bushnell. [4]

Rusticated, it is a two-story structure consisting of one wide central arch for the road traffic, flanked on both sides by narrower arches for pedestrians. On the upper part, four statues celebrate the 1660 Restoration of the Stuart monarchy: on the west side King Charles II is shown with his father King Charles I whose parents King James I and Anne of Denmark are depicted on the east side. [5] During the 18th century the heads of convicted traitors were frequently mounted on pikes and exhibited on the roof, as was the case on London Bridge. The other seven principal gateways to London, (Ludgate, Newgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate and Aldgate) were all demolished in the 1760s, but Temple Bar remained despite its impediment to the ever-growing traffic. The upper-storey room was leased to the neighbouring banking house of Child & Co for storage of records. [2]

In the 1853 Bleak House, Charles Dickens described it as "that leaden-headed old obstruction, appropriate ornament for the threshold of a leaden-headed old corporation". It was also the subject of jokes, "Why is Temple Bar like a lady's veil? Both must be raised (razed) for "busses" ('buses). It was noted in jest "as a weak spot in our defenses", since one could walk through the adjoining barbershop where one door opened on to the City and the other in the area of Westminster.

In 1874 it was discovered that the keystones had dropped and the arches were propped up with timbers. The steady increase in horse and cart traffic led to complaints that Temple Bar was becoming a bottleneck, holding back the City trade. In 1878 the City of London Corporation, eager to widen the road but unwilling to destroy so historic a monument, dismantled it piece-by-piece over an 11-day period and stored its 2,700 stones carefully. In 1880 the brewer Henry Meux, at the instigation of his wife Valerie Susan Meux, bought the stones and re-erected the arch as the facade of a new gatehouse in the park of his mansion house Theobalds Park in Hertfordshire, the site of a former substantial prodigy house of James VI and I. [6] There it remained, positioned in a woodland clearing, until 2003. A plaque marks the site where Temple Bar once stood.


Nicanor's Gate

NICANOR'S GATE, one of the gates leading to the Temple courtyard during the period of the Second Temple. According to the Mishnah, "There were seven gates in the Temple courtyard.… In the east there was the gate of Nicanor, which had two rooms attached, one on its right and one on its left, one the room of Phinehas the dresser and one the room of the griddle cake makers" (Mid. 1:4). This gate was one of the best known of the gifts made to the Temple and "miracles were performed in connection with the gate of Nicanor and his memory was praised" (Yoma 3:10). Of these miracles the Talmud states: "What miracles were performed by his doors? When Nicanor went to Alexandria in Egypt to bring them, on his return a huge wave threatened to engulf him. Thereupon they took one of the doors and cast it into the sea but still the sea continued to rage. When they prepared to cast the other one into the sea, Nicanor rose and clung to it, saying ⟊st me in with it.'" The sea immediately became calm. He was, however, deeply grieved about the other door. As they reached the harbor of Acre it broke the surface and appeared from under the sides of the boat. Others say a sea monster swallowed it and ejected it out onto dry land. Subsequently all the gates of the Sanctuary were changed for golden ones, but the Nicanor gates, which were said to be of bronze, were left because of the miracles wrought with them. But some say that they were retained because the bronze of which they were made had a special golden hue. R. Eliezer b. Jacob said, "It was Corinthian copper which shone like gold" (Yoma 38a). Corinthian gold was the name given to a family of copper alloys with gold and silver which were depletion-gilded to give them a golden or silver luster (see Jacobson ). An important production center for Corinthian gold was in Egypt, where, according to tradition, alchemy had its origins.

Scholars disagree over where the gates stood. Some claim that they were on the western side of the Court of Women which was to the east of the Court of Israelites others maintain that they were on the eastern side of the Court of Women. The basis of this conflict is in the interpretation of a passage in Josephus (Wars, 5:204). Schalit's discussion of the problem concludes that the words of Josephus are to be explained as meaning that the gates of Nicanor were "beyond" the entrance to the Sanctuary and facing "the gate that was larger," i.e., that it was on the eastern side of the Court of Women. The gates were undoubtedly made after the time of Herod (the most reasonable date being about the middle of the first century, a generation before the destruction) and were the work of an Alexandrian craftsman. Nicanor is also recorded in a first century C.E. inscription on an ossuary found in October 1902 in a cave on Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem ("the Cave of Nicanor"). The Greek inscription reads: "the remains of the children of Nicanor of Alexandria who made the doors." Nicanor's name also appears in a Hebrew inscription as well. Nicanor's gift was so well known that no additional explanation was necessary. Nicanor was an Alexandrian, though he may have gone to live in Jerusalem. It seems more likely, however, that his remains were brought from Alexandria to Jerusalem, where he had a family tomb. The ossuary mentioning Nicanor is now in the collections of the British Museum. Klein (1920 see also Tal 2002) expressed certainty that the Nicanor of the ossuary was the same as the Nicanor who made the set of gates of the Temple according to rabbinic sources Schwartz (1991), however, has expressed some doubts about this.

BIBLIOGRAFI:

H. Graetz, in: MGWJ, 25 (1876), 434f. A. Buechler, in: JQR, 11 (1898/99), 46-63 W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, 2 (1905), 295f., no. 519 E. Schuerer, in: ZNW, 7 (1906), 54ff. O. Holtzmann, ibid., 9 (1908), 71-74 idem (ed.), Die Mischna Middot (1913) H. Vincent and F.M. Abel, Jérusalem, 2 (1914), 45ff. S. Klein, Juedisch-palaestinisches Corpus Inscriptionum (1920), 17f., no. 9 Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, 8 (1937), 30, no. 200 Frey, Corpus, 2 (1952), 261f., no. 1256 M. Avi-Yonah, Sefer Yerushalayim, 1 (1956), 412 E. Wiesenberg, in: JJS, 3 (1952), 14-29 E. Bammel, ibid., 7 (1956), 77-78 A. Schalit, Koenig Herodes, 1 (1969), 389ff. TILFØJE. BIBLIOGRAFI: G. Dickson, "The Tomb of Nicanor of Alexandria," in: PEFQSt (1903), 326-31 C. Clermont-Ganneau, "The 'Gate of Nicanor' in the Temple of Jerusalem," in: PEFQSt (1903), 125-31 R.A.S. Macalister, "Further Observations on the Ossuary of Nicanor of Alexandria, in: PEFQSt (1905), 253� R.D. Barnett, Illustrations of Old Testament History (1977), 93� J. Schwartz, "Once More on the Nicanor Gate," in: HUCA, 62 (1991), 245� T. Ilan, Lexicon of Jewish names in Late Antiquity. Part jeg: Palestine 330 B.C.E.200 C.E. (2002), 297� D.M. Jacobson, "Corinthian Bronze and the Gold of the Alchemists," in: Gold Bulletin, 33 (2) (2000), 60�.

[Uriel Rappaport / Shimon Gibson (2 nd ed.)]

Kilde: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.

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Life Among the Ruins

NEXT month, the Temple of Baal will come to Times Square. Reproductions of the 50-foot arch that formed the temple’s entrance are to be installed in New York and in London, a tribute to the 2,000-year-old structure that the Islamic State destroyed last year in the Syrian town of Palmyra. The group’s rampage through Palmyra, a city that reached its peak in the second and third century A.D., enraged the world, spurring scholars and conservationists into action. Numerous nongovernmental organizations are now cataloging and mapping damaged cultural heritage sites in the region.

It will be uncanny and thrilling to see this arch from an ancient desert civilization set against the bright lights of New York. Unfortunately, facsimiles can achieve only so much. Denuded of people, stripped of the rich social contexts in which they were once embedded, antiquities appear just as evidence of the grandeur of the past, the accomplishments of another place in another time. But what did these assemblages of stone mean to the modern Iraqis and Syrians who lived with them?

For Salam al-Kuntar, a Syrian archaeologist who works at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, the loss of the Temple of Baal was deeply personal. “I have a special love for Palmyra because the Temple of Baal is where my mother was born,” she said.

Ms. Kuntar’s grandfather was a policeman in Palmyra when its Roman-era ruins were inhabited. Well into the 20th century, generations of Palmyrenes made their homes in the shade of millenniums-old columns. The locals taught Ms. Kuntar’s grandmother — who was a young bride when she arrived in Palmyra — how to cook and how to bake bread.

Her daughter was among the last generation born inside the ancient city. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, French colonial authorities cleared the area of its inhabitants and dismantled their mud-brick house. That paved the way for the archaeological exploration and preservation of the site, but it also definitively ended ancient Palmyra’s habitation as well as the use of the Temple of Baal, which over the centuries had transformed into a Byzantine church, then a mosque, before eventually becoming part of the village where Ms. Kuntar’s mother was born.

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When lamenting the masonry and sculpture destroyed by the Islamic State, we can easily overlook this shifting human story. We too readily consign antiquities to the remote province of the past. But they can remain meaningful in surprising and ordinary ways. “This is the meaning of heritage,” Ms. Kuntar said. “It’s not only architecture or artifacts that represent history, it’s these memories and the ancestral connection to place.”

Bulldozed by the Islamic State in 2015, the 1,500-year-old monastery of St. Elian, near Al Qaryatain, Syria, was a symbol of these connections. It was a modest and unadorned structure that had none of the glamour of the Temple of Baal a 3D reconstruction of the rather plain sarcophagus that held the remains of its eponymous saint won’t be coming to a major Western city any time soon. But its importance lay in its role as a bridge between communities.

Al Qaryatain is a small town in the desert between Palmyra and Damascus. For centuries, Christian and Muslim pilgrims alike came to the monastery to seek the blessings of the saint. Muslims venerated St. Elian as a Sufi sheikh, known to them as Sheikh Ahmed the Priest. His tomb was draped in the green satin common to Sufi holy sites.

Until the turbulence of the civil war, the monastery hosted the festival of Eid Mar Elian every Sept. 9. Five to six thousand devotees — Muslim and Christian — would converge on the monastery, where under a large tent erected in the central cloister they would swap tales about St. Elian/Sheikh Ahmed, share plates of lamb and rice, and dance the dabka.

In attacking the monastery, the Islamic State was not simply leveling a holy place. The militants struck at a site that had knit Muslim and Christian communities together for centuries. Local legend has it that centuries ago, the townspeople decided that no matter whether Islam or Christianity gathered more believers, the group in the majority would always protect the one in the minority. Generations of pilgrims left affectionate graffiti on the sarcophagus of Mar Elian, including a Star of David suggesting that at least one Jew visited the saint.

Another instance of revealing graffiti can be found on an antiquity destroyed last year in northern Iraq. After the Islamic State seized Mosul in 2014, important archaeological sites fell into the group’s hands. These included the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh, which the Islamic State pillaged in 2015.

One of the antiquities demolished at Nineveh was an enormous figure of a “lamassu,” a winged bull with the torso of a man and the beard of a king. It was a protective deity that watched over the Nergal Gate, a major entrance into the city. The lamassu was probably installed during the reign of King Sennacherib, who ruled from 705 to 681 B.C. He was an expansionist leader under whom Nineveh became the capital of the Assyrian Empire. The muscular iconography of the lamassu matched Sennacherib’s imperial ambition. Before smashing the sculpture, Islamic State fighters chiseled off its face with a pneumatic drill.

The winged bull carried the history not only of kings, but also of ordinary people. Archaeologists had noticed webs of lines scratched into the plinth of the lamassu. These markings, they determined, were the traces of a board game, possibly a version of the ancient Mesopotamian pastime known as the Twenty Squares, a descendant of which is still played in Iraq today. Bored Assyrian guards probably played as they whiled away their shifts. On the surface of a grand political statement, they left the irrepressible evidence of humbler life.

We should not think of the destroyed or at-risk heritage sites in the Middle East as history frozen in stone. It is, of course, worthwhile to study their structures, to resurrect them digitally and even raise them in the metropolitan plazas of the West. But those efforts will be hollow if we forget how antiquities have remained present in the lives of Iraqis and Syrians right up to this grim modern era of destruction.


Se videoen: What is the Temple?: Gateway Kids (Oktober 2021).